We investigate the variational optimality (specifically, the Banach space optimality) of a large class of neural architectures with multivariate nonlinearities/activation functions. To that end, we construct a new family of Banach spaces defined via a regularization operator and the $k$-plane transform. We prove a representer theorem that states that the solution sets to learning problems posed over these Banach spaces are completely characterized by neural architectures with multivariate nonlinearities. These optimal architectures have skip connections and are tightly connected to orthogonal weight normalization and multi-index models, both of which have received considerable interest in the neural network community. Our framework is compatible with a number of classical nonlinearities including the rectified linear unit (ReLU) activation function, the norm activation function, and the radial basis functions found in the theory of thin-plate/polyharmonic splines. We also show that the underlying spaces are special instances of reproducing kernel Banach spaces and variation spaces. Our results shed light on the regularity of functions learned by neural networks trained on data, particularly with multivariate nonlinearities, and provide new theoretical motivation for several architectural choices found in practice.
We propose to learn non-convex regularizers with a prescribed upper bound on their weak-convexity modulus. Such regularizers give rise to variational denoisers that minimize a convex energy. They rely on few parameters (less than 15,000) and offer a signal-processing interpretation as they mimic handcrafted sparsity-promoting regularizers. Through numerical experiments, we show that such denoisers outperform convex-regularization methods as well as the popular BM3D denoiser. Additionally, the learned regularizer can be deployed to solve inverse problems with iterative schemes that provably converge. For both CT and MRI reconstruction, the regularizer generalizes well and offers an excellent tradeoff between performance, number of parameters, guarantees, and interpretability when compared to other data-driven approaches.
We show that structural information can be extracted from single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) data. More precisely, we reinterpret SMLM data as the measures of a phaseless optical diffraction tomography system for which the illumination sources are fluorophores within the sample. Building upon this model, we propose a joint optimization framework to estimate both the refractive index map and the position of fluorescent molecules from the sole SMLM frames.
Over the years, computational imaging with accurate nonlinear physical models has drawn considerable interest due to its ability to achieve high-quality reconstructions. However, such nonlinear models are computationally demanding. A popular choice for solving the corresponding inverse problems is accelerated stochastic proximal methods (ASPMs), with the caveat that each iteration is expensive. To overcome this issue, we propose a mini-batch quasi-Newton proximal method (BQNPM) tailored to image-reconstruction problems with total-variation regularization. It involves an efficient approach that computes a weighted proximal mapping at a cost similar to that of the proximal mapping in ASPMs. However, BQNPM requires fewer iterations than ASPMs to converge. We assess the performance of BQNPM on three-dimensional inverse-scattering problems with linear and nonlinear physical models. Our results on simulated and real data show the effectiveness and efficiency of BQNPM,
In supervised learning, the regularization path is sometimes used as a convenient theoretical proxy for the optimization path of gradient descent initialized with zero. In this paper, we study a modification of the regularization path for infinite-width 2-layer ReLU neural networks with non-zero initial distribution of the weights at different scales. By exploiting a link with unbalanced optimal transport theory, we show that, despite the non-convexity of the 2-layer network training, this problem admits an infinite dimensional convex counterpart. We formulate the corresponding functional optimization problem and investigate its main properties. In particular, we show that as the scale of the initialization ranges between $0$ and $+\infty$, the associated path interpolates continuously between the so-called kernel and rich regimes. The numerical experiments confirm that, in our setting, the scaling path and the final states of the optimization path behave similarly even beyond these extreme points.
The emergence of deep-learning-based methods for solving inverse problems has enabled a significant increase in reconstruction quality. Unfortunately, these new methods often lack reliability and explainability, and there is a growing interest to address these shortcomings while retaining the performance. In this work, this problem is tackled by revisiting regularizers that are the sum of convex-ridge functions. The gradient of such regularizers is parametrized by a neural network that has a single hidden layer with increasing and learnable activation functions. This neural network is trained within a few minutes as a multi-step Gaussian denoiser. The numerical experiments for denoising, CT, and MRI reconstruction show improvements over methods that offer similar reliability guarantees.
Superresolution T2-weighted fetal-brain magnetic-resonance imaging (FBMRI) traditionally relies on the availability of several orthogonal low-resolution series of 2-dimensional thick slices (volumes). In practice, only a few low-resolution volumes are acquired. Thus, optimization-based image-reconstruction methods require strong regularization using hand-crafted regularizers (e.g., TV). Yet, due to in utero fetal motion and the rapidly changing fetal brain anatomy, the acquisition of the high-resolution images that are required to train supervised learning methods is difficult. In this paper, we sidestep this difficulty by providing a proof of concept of a self-supervised single-volume superresolution framework for T2-weighted FBMRI (SAIR). We validate SAIR quantitatively in a motion-free simulated environment. Our results for different noise levels and resolution ratios suggest that SAIR is comparable to multiple-volume superresolution reconstruction methods. We also evaluate SAIR qualitatively on clinical FBMRI data. The results suggest SAIR could be incorporated into current reconstruction pipelines.
The Bio Image and Signal Processing (BISP) Technical Committee (TC) of the IEEE Signal Processing Society (SPS) promotes activities within the broad technical field of biomedical image and signal processing. Areas of interest include medical and biological imaging, digital pathology, molecular imaging, microscopy, and associated computational imaging, image analysis, and image-guided treatment, alongside physiological signal processing, computational biology, and bioinformatics. BISP has 40 members and covers a wide range of EDICS, including CIS-MI: Medical Imaging, BIO-MIA: Medical Image Analysis, BIO-BI: Biological Imaging, BIO: Biomedical Signal Processing, BIO-BCI: Brain/Human-Computer Interfaces, and BIO-INFR: Bioinformatics. BISP plays a central role in the organization of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) and contributes to the technical sessions at the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), and the IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). In this paper, we provide a brief history of the TC, review the technological and methodological contributions its community delivered, and highlight promising new directions we anticipate.
Lipschitz-constrained neural networks have several advantages compared to unconstrained ones and can be applied to various different problems. Consequently, they have recently attracted considerable attention in the deep learning community. Unfortunately, it has been shown both theoretically and empirically that networks with ReLU activation functions perform poorly under such constraints. On the contrary, neural networks with learnable 1-Lipschitz linear splines are known to be more expressive in theory. In this paper, we show that such networks are solutions of a functional optimization problem with second-order total-variation regularization. Further, we propose an efficient method to train such 1-Lipschitz deep spline neural networks. Our numerical experiments for a variety of tasks show that our trained networks match or outperform networks with activation functions specifically tailored towards Lipschitz-constrained architectures.
Regression is one of the core problems tackled in supervised learning. Rectified linear unit (ReLU) neural networks generate continuous and piecewise-linear (CPWL) mappings and are the state-of-the-art approach for solving regression problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative method that leverages the expressivity of CPWL functions. In contrast to deep neural networks, our CPWL parameterization guarantees stability and is interpretable. Our approach relies on the partitioning of the domain of the CPWL function by a Delaunay triangulation. The function values at the vertices of the triangulation are our learnable parameters and identify the CPWL function uniquely. Formulating the learning scheme as a variational problem, we use the Hessian total variation (HTV) as regularizer to favor CPWL functions with few affine pieces. In this way, we control the complexity of our model through a single hyperparameter. By developing a computational framework to compute the HTV of any CPWL function parameterized by a triangulation, we discretize the learning problem as the generalized least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Our experiments validate the usage of our method in low-dimensional scenarios.