Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:L\'evy walks and other theoretical models of optimal foraging have been successfully used to describe real-world scenarios, attracting attention in several fields such as economy, physics, ecology, and evolutionary biology. However, it remains unclear in most cases which strategies maximize foraging efficiency and whether such strategies can be learned by living organisms. To address these questions, we model foragers as reinforcement learning agents. We first prove theoretically that maximizing rewards in our reinforcement learning model is equivalent to optimizing foraging efficiency. We then show with numerical experiments that our agents learn foraging strategies which outperform the efficiency of known strategies such as L\'evy walks.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Variational quantum algorithms represent a promising approach to quantum machine learning where classical neural networks are replaced by parametrized quantum circuits. Here, we present a variational approach to quantize projective simulation (PS), a reinforcement learning model aimed at interpretable artificial intelligence. Decision making in PS is modeled as a random walk on a graph describing the agent's memory. To implement the quantized model, we consider quantum walks of single photons in a lattice of tunable Mach-Zehnder interferometers. We propose variational algorithms tailored to reinforcement learning tasks, and we show, using an example from transfer learning, that the quantized PS learning model can outperform its classical counterpart. Finally, we discuss the role of quantum interference for training and decision making, paving the way for realizations of interpretable quantum learning agents.

Via

Authors:Sofiene Jerbi, Lukas J. Fiderer, Hendrik Poulsen Nautrup, Jonas M. Kübler, Hans J. Briegel, Vedran Dunjko

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:With noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers showing great promise for near-term applications, a number of machine learning algorithms based on parametrized quantum circuits have been suggested as possible means to achieve learning advantages. Yet, our understanding of how these quantum machine learning models compare, both to existing classical models and to each other, remains limited. A big step in this direction has been made by relating them to so-called kernel methods from classical machine learning. By building on this connection, previous works have shown that a systematic reformulation of many quantum machine learning models as kernel models was guaranteed to improve their training performance. In this work, we first extend the applicability of this result to a more general family of parametrized quantum circuit models called data re-uploading circuits. Secondly, we show, through simple constructions and numerical simulations, that models defined and trained variationally can exhibit a critically better generalization performance than their kernel formulations, which is the true figure of merit of machine learning tasks. Our results constitute another step towards a more comprehensive theory of quantum machine learning models next to kernel formulations.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Quantum metrology promises unprecedented measurement precision but suffers in practice from the limited availability of resources such as the number of probes, their coherence time, or non-classical quantum states. The adaptive Bayesian approach to parameter estimation allows for an efficient use of resources thanks to adaptive experiment design. For its practical success fast numerical solutions for the Bayesian update and the adaptive experiment design are crucial. Here we show that neural networks can be trained to become fast and strong experiment-design heuristics using a combination of an evolutionary strategy and reinforcement learning. Neural-network heuristics are shown to outperform established heuristics for the technologically important example of frequency estimation of a qubit that suffers from dephasing. Our method of creating neural-network heuristics is very general and complements the well-studied sequential Monte-Carlo method for Bayesian updates to form a complete framework for adaptive Bayesian quantum estimation.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Recently proposed quantum-chaotic sensors achieve quantum enhancements in measurement precision by applying nonlinear control pulses to the dynamics of the quantum sensor while using classical initial states that are easy to prepare. Here, we use the cross entropy method of reinforcement learning to optimize the strength and position of control pulses. Compared to the quantum-chaotic sensors in the presence of superradiant damping, we find that decoherence can be fought even better and measurement precision can be enhanced further by optimizing the control. In some examples, we find enhancements in sensitivity by more than an order of magnitude. By visualizing the evolution of the quantum state, the mechanism exploited by the reinforcement learning method is identified as a kind of spin-squeezing strategy that is adapted to the superradiant damping.

Via