A deep learning classifier for detecting seizures in neonates is proposed. This architecture is designed to detect seizure events from raw electroencephalogram (EEG) signals as opposed to the state-of-the-art hand engineered feature-based representation employed in traditional machine learning based solutions. The seizure detection system utilises only convolutional layers in order to process the multichannel time domain signal and is designed to exploit the large amount of weakly labelled data in the training stage. The system performance is assessed on a large database of continuous EEG recordings of 834h in duration; this is further validated on a held-out publicly available dataset and compared with two baseline SVM based systems. The developed system achieves a 56% relative improvement with respect to a feature-based state-of-the art baseline, reaching an AUC of 98.5%; this also compares favourably both in terms of performance and run-time. The effect of varying architectural parameters is thoroughly studied. The performance improvement is achieved through novel architecture design which allows more efficient usage of available training data and end-to-end optimisation from the front-end feature extraction to the back-end classification. The proposed architecture opens new avenues for the application of deep learning to neonatal EEG, where the performance becomes a function of the amount of training data with less dependency on the availability of precise clinical labels.
This paper proposes and implements an intuitive and pervasive solution for neonatal EEG monitoring assisted by sonification and deep learning AI that provides information about neonatal brain health to all neonatal healthcare professionals, particularly those without EEG interpretation expertise. The system aims to increase the demographic of clinicians capable of diagnosing abnormalities in neonatal EEG. The proposed system uses a low-cost and low-power EEG acquisition system. An Android app provides single-channel EEG visualization, traffic-light indication of the presence of neonatal seizures provided by a trained, deep convolutional neural network and an algorithm for EEG sonification, designed to facilitate the perception of changes in EEG morphology specific to neonatal seizures. The multifaceted EEG interpretation framework is presented and the implemented mobile platform architecture is analyzed with respect to its power consumption and accuracy.
This study presents a novel, deep, fully convolutional architecture which is optimized for the task of EEG-based neonatal seizure detection. Architectures of different depths were designed and tested; varying network depth impacts convolutional receptive fields and the corresponding learned feature complexity. Two deep convolutional networks are compared with a shallow SVM-based neonatal seizure detector, which relies on the extraction of hand-crafted features. On a large clinical dataset, of over 800 hours of multichannel unedited EEG, containing 1389 seizure events, the deep 11-layer architecture significantly outperforms the shallower architectures, improving the AUC90 from 82.6% to 86.8%. Combining the end-to-end deep architecture with the feature-based shallow SVM further improves the AUC90 to 87.6%. The fusion of classifiers of different depths gives greatly improved performance and reduced variability, making the combined classifier more clinically reliable.
This study presents a novel end-to-end architecture that learns hierarchical representations from raw EEG data using fully convolutional deep neural networks for the task of neonatal seizure detection. The deep neural network acts as both feature extractor and classifier, allowing for end-to-end optimization of the seizure detector. The designed system is evaluated on a large dataset of continuous unedited multi-channel neonatal EEG totaling 835 hours and comprising of 1389 seizures. The proposed deep architecture, with sample-level filters, achieves an accuracy that is comparable to the state-of-the-art SVM-based neonatal seizure detector, which operates on a set of carefully designed hand-crafted features. The fully convolutional architecture allows for the localization of EEG waveforms and patterns that result in high seizure probabilities for further clinical examination.