Presence of missing values in a dataset can adversely affect the performance of a classifier. Single and Multiple Imputation are normally performed to fill in the missing values. In this paper, we present several variants of combining single and multiple imputation with bootstrapping to create ensembles that can model uncertainty and diversity in the data, and that are robust to high missingness in the data. We present three ensemble strategies: bootstrapping on incomplete data followed by (i) single imputation and (ii) multiple imputation, and (iii) multiple imputation ensemble without bootstrapping. We perform an extensive evaluation of the performance of the these ensemble strategies on 8 datasets by varying the missingness ratio. Our results show that bootstrapping followed by multiple imputation using expectation maximization is the most robust method even at high missingness ratio (up to 30%). For small missingness ratio (up to 10%) most of the ensemble methods perform quivalently but better than single imputation. Kappa-error plots suggest that accurate classifiers with reasonable diversity is the reason for this behaviour. A consistent observation in all the datasets suggests that for small missingness (up to 10%), bootstrapping on incomplete data without any imputation produces equivalent results to other ensemble methods.
We present the development and evaluation of a hand tracking algorithm based on single depth images captured from an overhead perspective for use in the COACH prompting system. We train a random decision forest body part classifier using approximately 5,000 manually labeled, unbalanced, partially labeled training images. The classifier represents a random subset of pixels in each depth image with a learned probability density function across all trained body parts. A local mode-find approach is used to search for clusters present in the underlying feature space sampled by the classified pixels. In each frame, body part positions are chosen as the mode with the highest confidence. User hand positions are translated into hand washing task actions based on proximity to environmental objects. We validate the performance of the classifier and task action proposals on a large set of approximately 24,000 manually labeled images.
Assistive systems for persons with cognitive disabilities (e.g. dementia) are difficult to build due to the wide range of different approaches people can take to accomplishing the same task, and the significant uncertainties that arise from both the unpredictability of client's behaviours and from noise in sensor readings. Partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) models have been used successfully as the reasoning engine behind such assistive systems for small multi-step tasks such as hand washing. POMDP models are a powerful, yet flexible framework for modelling assistance that can deal with uncertainty and utility. Unfortunately, POMDPs usually require a very labour intensive, manual procedure for their definition and construction. Our previous work has described a knowledge driven method for automatically generating POMDP activity recognition and context sensitive prompting systems for complex tasks. We call the resulting POMDP a SNAP (SyNdetic Assistance Process). The spreadsheet-like result of the analysis does not correspond to the POMDP model directly and the translation to a formal POMDP representation is required. To date, this translation had to be performed manually by a trained POMDP expert. In this paper, we formalise and automate this translation process using a probabilistic relational model (PRM) encoded in a relational database. We demonstrate the method by eliciting three assistance tasks from non-experts. We validate the resulting POMDP models using case-based simulations to show that they are reasonable for the domains. We also show a complete case study of a designer specifying one database, including an evaluation in a real-life experiment with a human actor.