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"speech": models, code, and papers

Punctuation restoration in Swedish through fine-tuned KB-BERT

Feb 14, 2022
John Björkman Nilsson

Presented here is a method for automatic punctuation restoration in Swedish using a BERT model. The method is based on KB-BERT, a publicly available, neural network language model pre-trained on a Swedish corpus by National Library of Sweden. This model has then been fine-tuned for this specific task using a corpus of government texts. With a lower-case and unpunctuated Swedish text as input, the model is supposed to return a grammatically correct punctuated copy of the text as output. A successful solution to this problem brings benefits for an array of NLP domains, such as speech-to-text and automated text. Only the punctuation marks period, comma and question marks were considered for the project, due to a lack of data for more rare marks such as semicolon. Additionally, some marks are somewhat interchangeable with the more common, such as exclamation points and periods. Thus, the data set had all exclamation points replaced with periods. The fine-tuned Swedish BERT model, dubbed prestoBERT, achieved an overall F1-score of 78.9. The proposed model scored similarly to international counterparts, with Hungarian and Chinese models obtaining F1-scores of 82.2 and 75.6 respectively. As further comparison, a human evaluation case study was carried out. The human test group achieved an overall F1-score of 81.7, but scored substantially worse than prestoBERT on both period and comma. Inspecting output sentences from the model and humans show satisfactory results, despite the difference in F1-score. The disconnect seems to stem from an unnecessary focus on replicating the exact same punctuation used in the test set, rather than providing any of the number of correct interpretations. If the loss function could be rewritten to reward all grammatically correct outputs, rather than only the one original example, the performance could improve significantly for both prestoBERT and the human group.

* TRITA-EECS-EX ; 2021:526 

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GeneSys: Enabling Continuous Learning through Neural Network Evolution in Hardware

Sep 13, 2018
Ananda Samajdar, Parth Mannan, Kartikay Garg, Tushar Krishna

Modern deep learning systems rely on (a) a hand-tuned neural network topology, (b) massive amounts of labeled training data, and (c) extensive training over large-scale compute resources to build a system that can perform efficient image classification or speech recognition. Unfortunately, we are still far away from implementing adaptive general purpose intelligent systems which would need to learn autonomously in unknown environments and may not have access to some or any of these three components. Reinforcement learning and evolutionary algorithm (EA) based methods circumvent this problem by continuously interacting with the environment and updating the models based on obtained rewards. However, deploying these algorithms on ubiquitous autonomous agents at the edge (robots/drones) demands extremely high energy-efficiency due to (i) tight power and energy budgets, (ii) continuous/lifelong interaction with the environment, (iii) intermittent or no connectivity to the cloud to run heavy-weight processing. To address this need, we present GENESYS, an HW-SW prototype of an EA-based learning system, that comprises a closed loop learning engine called EvE and an inference engine called ADAM. EvE can evolve the topology and weights of neural networks completely in hardware for the task at hand, without requiring hand-optimization or backpropagation training. ADAM continuously interacts with the environment and is optimized for efficiently running the irregular neural networks generated by EvE. GENESYS identifies and leverages multiple unique avenues of parallelism unique to EAs that we term 'gene'- level parallelism, and 'population'-level parallelism. We ran GENESYS with a suite of environments from OpenAI gym and observed 2-5 orders of magnitude higher energy-efficiency over state-of-the-art embedded and desktop CPU and GPU systems.

* This work is accepted and will appear in MICRO-51 

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Load-balanced Gather-scatter Patterns for Sparse Deep Neural Networks

Dec 20, 2021
Fei Sun, Minghai Qin, Tianyun Zhang, Xiaolong Ma, Haoran Li, Junwen Luo, Zihao Zhao, Yen-Kuang Chen, Yuan Xie

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have been proven to be effective in solving many real-life problems, but its high computation cost prohibits those models from being deployed to edge devices. Pruning, as a method to introduce zeros to model weights, has shown to be an effective method to provide good trade-offs between model accuracy and computation efficiency, and is a widely-used method to generate compressed models. However, the granularity of pruning makes important trade-offs. At the same sparsity level, a coarse-grained structured sparse pattern is more efficient on conventional hardware but results in worse accuracy, while a fine-grained unstructured sparse pattern can achieve better accuracy but is inefficient on existing hardware. On the other hand, some modern processors are equipped with fast on-chip scratchpad memories and gather/scatter engines that perform indirect load and store operations on such memories. In this work, we propose a set of novel sparse patterns, named gather-scatter (GS) patterns, to utilize the scratchpad memories and gather/scatter engines to speed up neural network inferences. Correspondingly, we present a compact sparse format. The proposed set of sparse patterns, along with a novel pruning methodology, address the load imbalance issue and result in models with quality close to unstructured sparse models and computation efficiency close to structured sparse models. Our experiments show that GS patterns consistently make better trade-offs between accuracy and computation efficiency compared to conventional structured sparse patterns. GS patterns can reduce the runtime of the DNN components by two to three times at the same accuracy levels. This is confirmed on three different deep learning tasks and popular models, namely, GNMT for machine translation, ResNet50 for image recognition, and Japser for acoustic speech recognition.

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Detecting Offensive Content in Open-domain Conversations using Two Stage Semi-supervision

Nov 30, 2018
Chandra Khatri, Behnam Hedayatnia, Rahul Goel, Anushree Venkatesh, Raefer Gabriel, Arindam Mandal

As open-ended human-chatbot interaction becomes commonplace, sensitive content detection gains importance. In this work, we propose a two stage semi-supervised approach to bootstrap large-scale data for automatic sensitive language detection from publicly available web resources. We explore various data selection methods including 1) using a blacklist to rank online discussion forums by the level of their sensitiveness followed by randomly sampling utterances and 2) training a weakly supervised model in conjunction with the blacklist for scoring sentences from online discussion forums to curate a dataset. Our data collection strategy is flexible and allows the models to detect implicit sensitive content for which manual annotations may be difficult. We train models using publicly available annotated datasets as well as using the proposed large-scale semi-supervised datasets. We evaluate the performance of all the models on Twitter and Toxic Wikipedia comments testsets as well as on a manually annotated spoken language dataset collected during a large scale chatbot competition. Results show that a model trained on this collected data outperforms the baseline models by a large margin on both in-domain and out-of-domain testsets, achieving an F1 score of 95.5% on an out-of-domain testset compared to a score of 75% for models trained on public datasets. We also showcase that large scale two stage semi-supervision generalizes well across multiple classes of sensitivities such as hate speech, racism, sexual and pornographic content, etc. without even providing explicit labels for these classes, leading to an average recall of 95.5% versus the models trained using annotated public datasets which achieve an average recall of 73.2% across seven sensitive classes on out-of-domain testsets.

* NIPS CONVAI Workshop 2018 

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The History Began from AlexNet: A Comprehensive Survey on Deep Learning Approaches

Sep 12, 2018
Md Zahangir Alom, Tarek M. Taha, Christopher Yakopcic, Stefan Westberg, Paheding Sidike, Mst Shamima Nasrin, Brian C Van Esesn, Abdul A S. Awwal, Vijayan K. Asari

Deep learning has demonstrated tremendous success in variety of application domains in the past few years. This new field of machine learning has been growing rapidly and applied in most of the application domains with some new modalities of applications, which helps to open new opportunity. There are different methods have been proposed on different category of learning approaches, which includes supervised, semi-supervised and un-supervised learning. The experimental results show state-of-the-art performance of deep learning over traditional machine learning approaches in the field of Image Processing, Computer Vision, Speech Recognition, Machine Translation, Art, Medical imaging, Medical information processing, Robotics and control, Bio-informatics, Natural Language Processing (NLP), Cyber security, and many more. This report presents a brief survey on development of DL approaches, including Deep Neural Network (DNN), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) including Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) and Gated Recurrent Units (GRU), Auto-Encoder (AE), Deep Belief Network (DBN), Generative Adversarial Network (GAN), and Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL). In addition, we have included recent development of proposed advanced variant DL techniques based on the mentioned DL approaches. Furthermore, DL approaches have explored and evaluated in different application domains are also included in this survey. We have also comprised recently developed frameworks, SDKs, and benchmark datasets that are used for implementing and evaluating deep learning approaches. There are some surveys have published on Deep Learning in Neural Networks [1, 38] and a survey on RL [234]. However, those papers have not discussed the individual advanced techniques for training large scale deep learning models and the recently developed method of generative models [1].

* 39 pages, 46 figures, 3 tables. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1408.3264, arXiv:1411.4046 

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DSD: Dense-Sparse-Dense Training for Deep Neural Networks

Feb 21, 2017
Song Han, Jeff Pool, Sharan Narang, Huizi Mao, Enhao Gong, Shijian Tang, Erich Elsen, Peter Vajda, Manohar Paluri, John Tran, Bryan Catanzaro, William J. Dally

Modern deep neural networks have a large number of parameters, making them very hard to train. We propose DSD, a dense-sparse-dense training flow, for regularizing deep neural networks and achieving better optimization performance. In the first D (Dense) step, we train a dense network to learn connection weights and importance. In the S (Sparse) step, we regularize the network by pruning the unimportant connections with small weights and retraining the network given the sparsity constraint. In the final D (re-Dense) step, we increase the model capacity by removing the sparsity constraint, re-initialize the pruned parameters from zero and retrain the whole dense network. Experiments show that DSD training can improve the performance for a wide range of CNNs, RNNs and LSTMs on the tasks of image classification, caption generation and speech recognition. On ImageNet, DSD improved the Top1 accuracy of GoogLeNet by 1.1%, VGG-16 by 4.3%, ResNet-18 by 1.2% and ResNet-50 by 1.1%, respectively. On the WSJ'93 dataset, DSD improved DeepSpeech and DeepSpeech2 WER by 2.0% and 1.1%. On the Flickr-8K dataset, DSD improved the NeuralTalk BLEU score by over 1.7. DSD is easy to use in practice: at training time, DSD incurs only one extra hyper-parameter: the sparsity ratio in the S step. At testing time, DSD doesn't change the network architecture or incur any inference overhead. The consistent and significant performance gain of DSD experiments shows the inadequacy of the current training methods for finding the best local optimum, while DSD effectively achieves superior optimization performance for finding a better solution. DSD models are available to download at

* Published as a conference paper at ICLR 2017 

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Neural Architecture Search For LF-MMI Trained Time Delay Neural Networks

Jan 12, 2022
Shoukang Hu, Xurong Xie, Mingyu Cui, Jiajun Deng, Shansong Liu, Jianwei Yu, Mengzhe Geng, Xunying Liu, Helen Meng

State-of-the-art automatic speech recognition (ASR) system development is data and computation intensive. The optimal design of deep neural networks (DNNs) for these systems often require expert knowledge and empirical evaluation. In this paper, a range of neural architecture search (NAS) techniques are used to automatically learn two types of hyper-parameters of factored time delay neural networks (TDNN-Fs): i) the left and right splicing context offsets; and ii) the dimensionality of the bottleneck linear projection at each hidden layer. These techniques include the differentiable neural architecture search (DARTS) method integrating architecture learning with lattice-free MMI training; Gumbel-Softmax and pipelined DARTS methods reducing the confusion over candidate architectures and improving the generalization of architecture selection; and Penalized DARTS incorporating resource constraints to balance the trade-off between performance and system complexity. Parameter sharing among TDNN-F architectures allows an efficient search over up to 7^28 different systems. Statistically significant word error rate (WER) reductions of up to 1.2% absolute and relative model size reduction of 31% were obtained over a state-of-the-art 300-hour Switchboard corpus trained baseline LF-MMI TDNN-F system featuring speed perturbation, i-Vector and learning hidden unit contribution (LHUC) based speaker adaptation as well as RNNLM rescoring. Performance contrasts on the same task against recent end-to-end systems reported in the literature suggest the best NAS auto-configured system achieves state-of-the-art WERs of 9.9% and 11.1% on the NIST Hub5' 00 and Rt03s test sets respectively with up to 96% model size reduction. Further analysis using Bayesian learning shows that ...

* Submitted to TASLP. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2007.08818 

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Feature learning for efficient ASR-free keyword spotting in low-resource languages

Aug 13, 2021
Ewald van der Westhuizen, Herman Kamper, Raghav Menon, John Quinn, Thomas Niesler

We consider feature learning for efficient keyword spotting that can be applied in severely under-resourced settings. The objective is to support humanitarian relief programmes by the United Nations in parts of Africa in which almost no language resources are available. For rapid development in such languages, we rely on a small, easily-compiled set of isolated keywords. These keyword templates are applied to a large corpus of in-domain but untranscribed speech using dynamic time warping (DTW). The resulting DTW alignment scores are used to train a convolutional neural network (CNN) which is orders of magnitude more computationally efficient and suitable for real-time application. We optimise this neural network keyword spotter by identifying robust acoustic features in this almost zero-resource setting. First, we incorporate information from well-resourced but unrelated languages using a multilingual bottleneck feature (BNF) extractor. Next, we consider features extracted from an autoencoder (AE) trained on in-domain but untranscribed data. Finally, we consider correspondence autoencoder (CAE) features which are fine-tuned on the small set of in-domain labelled data. Experiments in South African English and Luganda, a low-resource language, show that BNF and CAE features achieve a 5% relative performance improvement over baseline MFCCs. However, using BNFs as input to the CAE results in a more than 27% relative improvement over MFCCs in ROC area-under-the-curve (AUC) and more than twice as many top-10 retrievals. We show that, using these features, the CNN-DTW keyword spotter performs almost as well as the DTW keyword spotter while outperforming a baseline CNN trained only on the keyword templates. The CNN-DTW keyword spotter using BNF-derived CAE features represents an efficient approach with competitive performance suited to rapid deployment in a severely under-resourced scenario.

* 37 pages, 14 figures, Preprint accepted for publication in Computer Speech and Language 

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$\text{ISS}_2$: An Extension of Iterative Source Steering Algorithm for Majorization-Minimization-Based Independent Vector Analysis

Feb 02, 2022
Rintaro Ikeshita, Tomohiro Nakatani

A majorization-minimization (MM) algorithm for independent vector analysis optimizes a separation matrix $W = [w_1, \ldots, w_m]^h \in \mathbb{C}^{m \times m}$ by minimizing a surrogate function of the form $\mathcal{L}(W) = \sum_{i = 1}^m w_i^h V_i w_i - \log | \det W |^2$, where $m \in \mathbb{N}$ is the number of sensors and positive definite matrices $V_1,\ldots,V_m \in \mathbb{C}^{m \times m}$ are constructed in each MM iteration. For $m \geq 3$, no algorithm has been found to obtain a global minimum of $\mathcal{L}(W)$. Instead, block coordinate descent (BCD) methods with closed-form update formulas have been developed for minimizing $\mathcal{L}(W)$ and shown to be effective. One such BCD is called iterative projection (IP) that updates one or two rows of $W$ in each iteration. Another BCD is called iterative source steering (ISS) that updates one column of the mixing matrix $A = W^{-1}$ in each iteration. Although the time complexity per iteration of ISS is $m$ times smaller than that of IP, the conventional ISS converges slower than the current fastest IP (called $\text{IP}_2$) that updates two rows of $W$ in each iteration. We here extend this ISS to $\text{ISS}_2$ that can update two columns of $A$ in each iteration while maintaining its small time complexity. To this end, we provide a unified way for developing new ISS type methods from which $\text{ISS}_2$ as well as the conventional ISS can be immediately obtained in a systematic manner. Numerical experiments to separate reverberant speech mixtures show that our $\text{ISS}_2$ converges in fewer MM iterations than the conventional ISS, and is comparable to $\text{IP}_2$.

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Hardware-Guided Symbiotic Training for Compact, Accurate, yet Execution-Efficient LSTM

Jan 30, 2019
Hongxu Yin, Guoyang Chen, Yingmin Li, Shuai Che, Weifeng Zhang, Niraj K. Jha

Many long short-term memory (LSTM) applications need fast yet compact models. Neural network compression approaches, such as the grow-and-prune paradigm, have proved to be promising for cutting down network complexity by skipping insignificant weights. However, current compression strategies are mostly hardware-agnostic and network complexity reduction does not always translate into execution efficiency. In this work, we propose a hardware-guided symbiotic training methodology for compact, accurate, yet execution-efficient inference models. It is based on our observation that hardware may introduce substantial non-monotonic behavior, which we call the latency hysteresis effect, when evaluating network size vs. inference latency. This observation raises question about the mainstream smaller-dimension-is-better compression strategy, which often leads to a sub-optimal model architecture. By leveraging the hardware-impacted hysteresis effect and sparsity, we are able to achieve the symbiosis of model compactness and accuracy with execution efficiency, thus reducing LSTM latency while increasing its accuracy. We have evaluated our algorithms on language modeling and speech recognition applications. Relative to the traditional stacked LSTM architecture obtained for the Penn Treebank dataset, we reduce the number of parameters by 18.0x (30.5x) and measured run-time latency by up to 2.4x (5.2x) on Nvidia GPUs (Intel Xeon CPUs) without any accuracy degradation. For the DeepSpeech2 architecture obtained for the AN4 dataset, we reduce the number of parameters by 7.0x (19.4x), word error rate from 12.9% to 9.9% (10.4%), and measured run-time latency by up to 1.7x (2.4x) on Nvidia GPUs (Intel Xeon CPUs). Thus, our method yields compact, accurate, yet execution-efficient inference models.

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