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"speech": models, code, and papers

Learning to Efficiently Sample from Diffusion Probabilistic Models

Jun 07, 2021
Daniel Watson, Jonathan Ho, Mohammad Norouzi, William Chan

Denoising Diffusion Probabilistic Models (DDPMs) have emerged as a powerful family of generative models that can yield high-fidelity samples and competitive log-likelihoods across a range of domains, including image and speech synthesis. Key advantages of DDPMs include ease of training, in contrast to generative adversarial networks, and speed of generation, in contrast to autoregressive models. However, DDPMs typically require hundreds-to-thousands of steps to generate a high fidelity sample, making them prohibitively expensive for high dimensional problems. Fortunately, DDPMs allow trading generation speed for sample quality through adjusting the number of refinement steps as a post process. Prior work has been successful in improving generation speed through handcrafting the time schedule by trial and error. We instead view the selection of the inference time schedules as an optimization problem, and introduce an exact dynamic programming algorithm that finds the optimal discrete time schedules for any pre-trained DDPM. Our method exploits the fact that ELBO can be decomposed into separate KL terms, and given any computation budget, discovers the time schedule that maximizes the training ELBO exactly. Our method is efficient, has no hyper-parameters of its own, and can be applied to any pre-trained DDPM with no retraining. We discover inference time schedules requiring as few as 32 refinement steps, while sacrificing less than 0.1 bits per dimension compared to the default 4,000 steps used on ImageNet 64x64 [Ho et al., 2020; Nichol and Dhariwal, 2021].


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Evaluation of Deep Learning Models for Hostility Detection in Hindi Text

Jan 13, 2021
Ramchandra Joshi, Rushabh Karnavat, Kaustubh Jirapure, Raviraj Joshi

The social media platform is a convenient medium to express personal thoughts and share useful information. It is fast, concise, and has the ability to reach millions. It is an effective place to archive thoughts, share artistic content, receive feedback, promote products, etc. Despite having numerous advantages these platforms have given a boost to hostile posts. Hate speech and derogatory remarks are being posted for personal satisfaction or political gain. The hostile posts can have a bullying effect rendering the entire platform experience hostile. Therefore detection of hostile posts is important to maintain social media hygiene. The problem is more pronounced languages like Hindi which are low in resources. In this work, we present approaches for hostile text detection in the Hindi language. The proposed approaches are evaluated on the [email protected] 2021 Hindi hostility detection dataset. The dataset consists of hostile and non-hostile texts collected from social media platforms. The hostile posts are further segregated into overlapping classes of fake, offensive, hate, and defamation. We evaluate a host of deep learning approaches based on CNN, LSTM, and BERT for this multi-label classification problem. The pre-trained Hindi fast text word embeddings by IndicNLP and Facebook are used in conjunction with CNN and LSTM models. Two variations of pre-trained multilingual transformer language models mBERT and IndicBERT are used. We show that the performance of BERT based models is best. Moreover, CNN and LSTM models also perform competitively with BERT based models.


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Dialogue-based simulation for cultural awareness training

Feb 01, 2020
Sodiq Adewole, Erfaneh Gharavi, Benjamin Shpringer, Martin Bolger, Vaibhav Sharma, Sung Ming Yang, Donald E. Brown

Existing simulations designed for cultural and interpersonal skill training rely on pre-defined responses with a menu option selection interface. Using a multiple-choice interface and restricting trainees' responses may limit the trainees' ability to apply the lessons in real life situations. This systems also uses a simplistic evaluation model, where trainees' selected options are marked as either correct or incorrect. This model may not capture sufficient information that could drive an adaptive feedback mechanism to improve trainees' cultural awareness. This paper describes the design of a dialogue-based simulation for cultural awareness training. The simulation, built around a disaster management scenario involving a joint coalition between the US and the Chinese armies. Trainees were able to engage in realistic dialogue with the Chinese agent. Their responses, at different points, get evaluated by different multi-label classification models. Based on training on our dataset, the models score the trainees' responses for cultural awareness in the Chinese culture. Trainees also get feedback that informs the cultural appropriateness of their responses. The result of this work showed the following; i) A feature-based evaluation model improves the design, modeling and computation of dialogue-based training simulation systems; ii) Output from current automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems gave comparable end results compared with the output from manual transcription; iii) A multi-label classification model trained as a cultural expert gave results which were comparable with scores assigned by human annotators.


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Kashmir: A Computational Analysis of the Voice of Peace

Sep 11, 2019
Shriphani Palakodety, Ashiqur R. KhudaBukhsh, Jaime G. Carbonell

The recent Pulwama terror attack (February 14, 2019, Pulwama, Kashmir) triggered a chain of escalating events between India and Pakistan adding another episode to their 70-year-old dispute over Kashmir. The present era of ubiquitious social media has never seen nuclear powers closer to war. In this paper, we analyze this evolving international crisis via a substantial corpus constructed using comments on YouTube videos (921,235 English comments posted by 392,460 users out of 2.04 million overall comments by 791,289 users on 2,890 videos). Our main contributions in the paper are three-fold. First, we present an observation that polyglot word-embeddings reveal precise and accurate language clusters, and subsequently construct a document language-identification technique with negligible annotation requirements. We demonstrate the viability and utility across a variety of data sets involving several low-resource languages. Second, we present an extensive analysis on temporal trends of pro-peace and pro-war intent through a manually constructed polarity phrase lexicon. We observe that when tensions between the two nations were at their peak, pro-peace intent in the corpus was at its highest point. Finally, in the context of heated discussions in a politically tense situation where two nations are at the brink of a full-fledged war, we argue the importance of automatic identification of user-generated web content that can diffuse hostility and address this prediction task, dubbed \emph{hope-speech detection}.


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Bayesian Pitch Tracking Based on the Harmonic Model

May 21, 2019
Liming Shi, Jesper Kjaer Nielsen, Jesper Rindom Jensen, Max A. Little, Mads Graesboll Christensen

Fundamental frequency is one of the most important characteristics of speech and audio signals. Harmonic model-based fundamental frequency estimators offer a higher estimation accuracy and robustness against noise than the widely used autocorrelation-based methods. However, the traditional harmonic model-based estimators do not take the temporal smoothness of the fundamental frequency, the model order, and the voicing into account as they process each data segment independently. In this paper, a fully Bayesian fundamental frequency tracking algorithm based on the harmonic model and a first-order Markov process model is proposed. Smoothness priors are imposed on the fundamental frequencies, model orders, and voicing using first-order Markov process models. Using these Markov models, fundamental frequency estimation and voicing detection errors can be reduced. Using the harmonic model, the proposed fundamental frequency tracker has an improved robustness to noise. An analytical form of the likelihood function, which can be computed efficiently, is derived. Compared to the state-of-the-art neural network and non-parametric approaches, the proposed fundamental frequency tracking algorithm reduces the mean absolute errors and gross errors by 15\% and 20\% on the Keele pitch database and 36\% and 26\% on sustained /a/ sounds from a database of Parkinson's disease voices under 0 dB white Gaussian noise. A MATLAB version of the proposed algorithm is made freely available for reproduction of the results\footnote{An implementation of the proposed algorithm using MATLAB may be found in \url{https://tinyurl.com/yxn4a543}


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GIRNet: Interleaved Multi-Task Recurrent State Sequence Models

Nov 28, 2018
Divam Gupta, Tanmoy Chakraborty, Soumen Chakrabarti

In several natural language tasks, labeled sequences are available in separate domains (say, languages), but the goal is to label sequences with mixed domain (such as code-switched text). Or, we may have available models for labeling whole passages (say, with sentiments), which we would like to exploit toward better position-specific label inference (say, target-dependent sentiment annotation). A key characteristic shared across such tasks is that different positions in a primary instance can benefit from different `experts' trained from auxiliary data, but labeled primary instances are scarce, and labeling the best expert for each position entails unacceptable cognitive burden. We propose GITNet, a unified position-sensitive multi-task recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture for such applications. Auxiliary and primary tasks need not share training instances. Auxiliary RNNs are trained over auxiliary instances. A primary instance is also submitted to each auxiliary RNN, but their state sequences are gated and merged into a novel composite state sequence tailored to the primary inference task. Our approach is in sharp contrast to recent multi-task networks like the cross-stitch and sluice network, which do not control state transfer at such fine granularity. We demonstrate the superiority of GIRNet using three applications: sentiment classification of code-switched passages, part-of-speech tagging of code-switched text, and target position-sensitive annotation of sentiment in monolingual passages. In all cases, we establish new state-of-the-art performance beyond recent competitive baselines.

* Accepted at AAAI 2019 

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Grow and Prune Compact, Fast, and Accurate LSTMs

May 31, 2018
Xiaoliang Dai, Hongxu Yin, Niraj K. Jha

Long short-term memory (LSTM) has been widely used for sequential data modeling. Researchers have increased LSTM depth by stacking LSTM cells to improve performance. This incurs model redundancy, increases run-time delay, and makes the LSTMs more prone to overfitting. To address these problems, we propose a hidden-layer LSTM (H-LSTM) that adds hidden layers to LSTM's original one level non-linear control gates. H-LSTM increases accuracy while employing fewer external stacked layers, thus reducing the number of parameters and run-time latency significantly. We employ grow-and-prune (GP) training to iteratively adjust the hidden layers through gradient-based growth and magnitude-based pruning of connections. This learns both the weights and the compact architecture of H-LSTM control gates. We have GP-trained H-LSTMs for image captioning and speech recognition applications. For the NeuralTalk architecture on the MSCOCO dataset, our three models reduce the number of parameters by 38.7x [floating-point operations (FLOPs) by 45.5x], run-time latency by 4.5x, and improve the CIDEr score by 2.6. For the DeepSpeech2 architecture on the AN4 dataset, our two models reduce the number of parameters by 19.4x (FLOPs by 23.5x), run-time latency by 15.7%, and the word error rate from 12.9% to 8.7%. Thus, GP-trained H-LSTMs can be seen to be compact, fast, and accurate.


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RPC Considered Harmful: Fast Distributed Deep Learning on RDMA

May 22, 2018
Jilong Xue, Youshan Miao, Cheng Chen, Ming Wu, Lintao Zhang, Lidong Zhou

Deep learning emerges as an important new resource-intensive workload and has been successfully applied in computer vision, speech, natural language processing, and so on. Distributed deep learning is becoming a necessity to cope with growing data and model sizes. Its computation is typically characterized by a simple tensor data abstraction to model multi-dimensional matrices, a data-flow graph to model computation, and iterative executions with relatively frequent synchronizations, thereby making it substantially different from Map/Reduce style distributed big data computation. RPC, commonly used as the communication primitive, has been adopted by popular deep learning frameworks such as TensorFlow, which uses gRPC. We show that RPC is sub-optimal for distributed deep learning computation, especially on an RDMA-capable network. The tensor abstraction and data-flow graph, coupled with an RDMA network, offers the opportunity to reduce the unnecessary overhead (e.g., memory copy) without sacrificing programmability and generality. In particular, from a data access point of view, a remote machine is abstracted just as a "device" on an RDMA channel, with a simple memory interface for allocating, reading, and writing memory regions. Our graph analyzer looks at both the data flow graph and the tensors to optimize memory allocation and remote data access using this interface. The result is up to 25 times speedup in representative deep learning benchmarks against the standard gRPC in TensorFlow and up to 169% improvement even against an RPC implementation optimized for RDMA, leading to faster convergence in the training process.


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Multi-Task Deep Residual Echo Suppression with Echo-aware Loss

Feb 17, 2022
Shimin Zhang, Ziteng Wang, Jiayao Sun, Yihui Fu, Biao Tian, Qiang Fu, Lei Xie

This paper introduces the NWPU Team's entry to the ICASSP 2022 AEC Challenge. We take a hybrid approach that cascades a linear AEC with a neural post-filter. The former is used to deal with the linear echo components while the latter suppresses the residual non-linear echo components. We use gated convolutional F-T-LSTM neural network (GFTNN) as the backbone and shape the post-filter by a multi-task learning (MTL) framework, where a voice activity detection (VAD) module is adopted as an auxiliary task along with echo suppression, with the aim to avoid over suppression that may cause speech distortion. Moreover, we adopt an echo-aware loss function, where the mean square error (MSE) loss can be optimized particularly for every time-frequency bin (TF-bin) according to the signal-to-echo ratio (SER), leading to further suppression on the echo. Extensive ablation study shows that the time delay estimation (TDE) module in neural post-filter leads to better perceptual quality, and an adaptive filter with better convergence will bring consistent performance gain for the post-filter. Besides, we find that using the linear echo as the input of our neural post-filter is a better choice than using the reference signal directly. In the ICASSP 2022 AEC-Challenge, our approach has ranked the 1st place on word acceptance rate (WAcc) (0.817) and the 3rd place on both mean opinion score (MOS) (4.502) and the final score (0.864).

* ICASSP 2022 

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From Theories on Styles to their Transfer in Text: Bridging the Gap with a Hierarchical Survey

Nov 10, 2021
Enrica Troiano, Aswathy Velutharambath, Roman Klinger

Humans are naturally endowed with the ability to write in a particular style. They can, for instance, rephrase a formal letter in an informal way, convey a literal message with the use of figures of speech, edit a novel mimicking the style of some well-known authors. Automating this form of creativity constitutes the goal of style transfer. As a natural language generation task, style transfer aims at re-writing existing texts, and specifically, it creates paraphrases that exhibit some desired stylistic attributes. From a practical perspective, it envisions beneficial applications, like chat-bots that modulate their communicative style to appear empathetic, or systems that automatically simplify technical articles for a non-expert audience. Style transfer has been dedicated several style-aware paraphrasing methods. A handful of surveys give a methodological overview of the field, but they do not support researchers to focus on specific styles. With this paper, we aim at providing a comprehensive discussion of the styles that have received attention in the transfer task. We organize them into a hierarchy, highlighting the challenges for the definition of each of them, and pointing out gaps in the current research landscape. The hierarchy comprises two main groups. One encompasses styles that people modulate arbitrarily, along the lines of registers and genres. The other group corresponds to unintentionally expressed styles, due to an author's personal characteristics. Hence, our review shows how the groups relate to one another, and where specific styles, including some that have never been explored, belong in the hierarchy. Moreover, we summarize the methods employed for different stylistic families, hinting researchers towards those that would be the most fitting for future research.

* 58 pages, 2 figures, 9 tables. Submitted for review to the Journal of Natural Language Engineering, Cambridge University Press 

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