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"speech": models, code, and papers

Contextual Semi-Supervised Learning: An Approach To Leverage Air-Surveillance and Untranscribed ATC Data in ASR Systems

Apr 08, 2021
Juan Zuluaga-Gomez, Iuliia Nigmatulina, Amrutha Prasad, Petr Motlicek, Karel Veselý, Martin Kocour, Igor Szöke

Air traffic management and specifically air-traffic control (ATC) rely mostly on voice communications between Air Traffic Controllers (ATCos) and pilots. In most cases, these voice communications follow a well-defined grammar that could be leveraged in Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technologies. The callsign used to address an airplane is an essential part of all ATCo-pilot communications. We propose a two-steps approach to add contextual knowledge during semi-supervised training to reduce the ASR system error rates at recognizing the part of the utterance that contains the callsign. Initially, we represent in a WFST the contextual knowledge (i.e. air-surveillance data) of an ATCo-pilot communication. Then, during Semi-Supervised Learning (SSL) the contextual knowledge is added by second-pass decoding (i.e. lattice re-scoring). Results show that `unseen domains' (e.g. data from airports not present in the supervised training data) are further aided by contextual SSL when compared to standalone SSL. For this task, we introduce the Callsign Word Error Rate (CA-WER) as an evaluation metric, which only assesses ASR performance of the spoken callsign in an utterance. We obtained a 32.1% CA-WER relative improvement applying SSL with an additional 17.5% CA-WER improvement by adding contextual knowledge during SSL on a challenging ATC-based test set gathered from LiveATC.

* Submitted to: Interspeech conference 2021 (Brno, Czechia, August 30 - September 3) 

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Skeleton Based Sign Language Recognition Using Whole-body Keypoints

Mar 16, 2021
Songyao Jiang, Bin Sun, Lichen Wang, Yue Bai, Kunpeng Li, Yun Fu

Sign language is a visual language that is used by deaf or speech impaired people to communicate with each other. Sign language is always performed by fast transitions of hand gestures and body postures, requiring a great amount of knowledge and training to understand it. Sign language recognition becomes a useful yet challenging task in computer vision. Skeleton-based action recognition is becoming popular that it can be further ensembled with RGB-D based method to achieve state-of-the-art performance. However, skeleton-based recognition can hardly be applied to sign language recognition tasks, majorly because skeleton data contains no indication of hand gestures or facial expressions. Inspired by the recent development of whole-body pose estimation \cite{jin2020whole}, we propose recognizing sign language based on the whole-body key points and features. The recognition results are further ensembled with other modalities of RGB and optical flows to improve the accuracy further. In the challenge about isolated sign language recognition hosted by ChaLearn using a new large-scale multi-modal Turkish Sign Language dataset (AUTSL). Our method achieved leading accuracy in both the development phase and test phase. This manuscript is a fact sheet version. Our workshop paper version will be released soon. Our code has been made available at https://github.com/jackyjsy/CVPR21Chal-SLR

* This submission is a preprint fact sheet version of our work at CVPR2021 Challenge on Looking at People Large Scale Signer Independent Isolated SLR 

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Knowledge Distillation and Data Selection for Semi-Supervised Learning in CTC Acoustic Models

Aug 10, 2020
Prakhar Swarup, Debmalya Chakrabarty, Ashtosh Sapru, Hitesh Tulsiani, Harish Arsikere, Sri Garimella

Semi-supervised learning (SSL) is an active area of research which aims to utilize unlabelled data in order to improve the accuracy of speech recognition systems. The current study proposes a methodology for integration of two key ideas: 1) SSL using connectionist temporal classification (CTC) objective and teacher-student based learning 2) Designing effective data-selection mechanisms for leveraging unlabelled data to boost performance of student models. Our aim is to establish the importance of good criteria in selecting samples from a large pool of unlabelled data based on attributes like confidence measure, speaker and content variability. The question we try to answer is: Is it possible to design a data selection mechanism which reduces dependence on a large set of randomly selected unlabelled samples without compromising on Word Error Rate (WER)? We perform empirical investigations of different data selection methods to answer this question and quantify the effect of different sampling strategies. On a semi-supervised ASR setting with 40000 hours of carefully selected unlabelled data, our CTC-SSL approach gives 17% relative WER improvement over a baseline CTC system trained with labelled data. It also achieves on-par performance with CTC-SSL system trained on order of magnitude larger unlabeled data based on random sampling.


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Algorithm Unrolling: Interpretable, Efficient Deep Learning for Signal and Image Processing

Dec 22, 2019
Vishal Monga, Yuelong Li, Yonina C. Eldar

Deep neural networks provide unprecedented performance gains in many real world problems in signal and image processing. Despite these gains, future development and practical deployment of deep networks is hindered by their blackbox nature, i.e., lack of interpretability, and by the need for very large training sets. An emerging technique called algorithm unrolling or unfolding offers promise in eliminating these issues by providing a concrete and systematic connection between iterative algorithms that are used widely in signal processing and deep neural networks. Unrolling methods were first proposed to develop fast neural network approximations for sparse coding. More recently, this direction has attracted enormous attention and is rapidly growing both in theoretic investigations and practical applications. The growing popularity of unrolled deep networks is due in part to their potential in developing efficient, high-performance and yet interpretable network architectures from reasonable size training sets. In this article, we review algorithm unrolling for signal and image processing. We extensively cover popular techniques for algorithm unrolling in various domains of signal and image processing including imaging, vision and recognition, and speech processing. By reviewing previous works, we reveal the connections between iterative algorithms and neural networks and present recent theoretical results. Finally, we provide a discussion on current limitations of unrolling and suggest possible future research directions.


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k-FFNN: A priori knowledge infused Feed-forward Neural Networks

Apr 24, 2017
Sri Harsha Dumpala, Rupayan Chakraborty, Sunil Kumar Kopparapu

Recurrent neural network (RNN) are being extensively used over feed-forward neural networks (FFNN) because of their inherent capability to capture temporal relationships that exist in the sequential data such as speech. This aspect of RNN is advantageous especially when there is no a priori knowledge about the temporal correlations within the data. However, RNNs require large amount of data to learn these temporal correlations, limiting their advantage in low resource scenarios. It is not immediately clear (a) how a priori temporal knowledge can be used in a FFNN architecture (b) how a FFNN performs when provided with this knowledge about temporal correlations (assuming available) during training. The objective of this paper is to explore k-FFNN, namely a FFNN architecture that can incorporate the a priori knowledge of the temporal relationships within the data sequence during training and compare k-FFNN performance with RNN in a low resource scenario. We evaluate the performance of k-FFNN and RNN by extensive experimentation on MediaEval 2016 audio data ("Emotional Impact of Movies" task). Experimental results show that the performance of k-FFNN is comparable to RNN, and in some scenarios k-FFNN performs better than RNN when temporal knowledge is injected into FFNN architecture. The main contributions of this paper are (a) fusing a priori knowledge into FFNN architecture to construct a k-FFNN and (b) analyzing the performance of k-FFNN with respect to RNN for different size of training data.


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Deep Reservoir Computing Using Cellular Automata

Mar 08, 2017
Stefano Nichele, Andreas Molund

Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have been a prominent concept within artificial intelligence. They are inspired by Biological Neural Networks (BNNs) and provide an intuitive and abstract representation of how BNNs work. Derived from the more generic Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), the recurrent ones are meant to be used for temporal tasks, such as speech recognition, because they are capable of memorizing historic input. However, such networks are very time consuming to train as a result of their inherent nature. Recently, Echo State Networks and Liquid State Machines have been proposed as possible RNN alternatives, under the name of Reservoir Computing (RC). RCs are far more easy to train. In this paper, Cellular Automata are used as reservoir, and are tested on the 5-bit memory task (a well known benchmark within the RC community). The work herein provides a method of mapping binary inputs from the task onto the automata, and a recurrent architecture for handling the sequential aspects of it. Furthermore, a layered (deep) reservoir architecture is proposed. Performances are compared towards earlier work, in addition to its single-layer version. Results show that the single CA reservoir system yields similar results to state-of-the-art work. The system comprised of two layered reservoirs do show a noticeable improvement compared to a single CA reservoir. This indicates potential for further research and provides valuable insight on how to design CA reservoir systems.


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Learning to Distill: The Essence Vector Modeling Framework

Nov 22, 2016
Kuan-Yu Chen, Shih-Hung Liu, Berlin Chen, Hsin-Min Wang

In the context of natural language processing, representation learning has emerged as a newly active research subject because of its excellent performance in many applications. Learning representations of words is a pioneering study in this school of research. However, paragraph (or sentence and document) embedding learning is more suitable/reasonable for some tasks, such as sentiment classification and document summarization. Nevertheless, as far as we are aware, there is relatively less work focusing on the development of unsupervised paragraph embedding methods. Classic paragraph embedding methods infer the representation of a given paragraph by considering all of the words occurring in the paragraph. Consequently, those stop or function words that occur frequently may mislead the embedding learning process to produce a misty paragraph representation. Motivated by these observations, our major contributions in this paper are twofold. First, we propose a novel unsupervised paragraph embedding method, named the essence vector (EV) model, which aims at not only distilling the most representative information from a paragraph but also excluding the general background information to produce a more informative low-dimensional vector representation for the paragraph. Second, in view of the increasing importance of spoken content processing, an extension of the EV model, named the denoising essence vector (D-EV) model, is proposed. The D-EV model not only inherits the advantages of the EV model but also can infer a more robust representation for a given spoken paragraph against imperfect speech recognition.


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Facial Expressions Tracking and Recognition: Database Protocols for Systems Validation and Evaluation

Jun 02, 2015
Catarina Runa Miranda, Pedro Mendes, Pedro Coelho, Xenxo Alvarez, João Freitas, Miguel Sales Dias, Verónica Costa Orvalho

Each human face is unique. It has its own shape, topology, and distinguishing features. As such, developing and testing facial tracking systems are challenging tasks. The existing face recognition and tracking algorithms in Computer Vision mainly specify concrete situations according to particular goals and applications, requiring validation methodologies with data that fits their purposes. However, a database that covers all possible variations of external and factors does not exist, increasing researchers' work in acquiring their own data or compiling groups of databases. To address this shortcoming, we propose a methodology for facial data acquisition through definition of fundamental variables, such as subject characteristics, acquisition hardware, and performance parameters. Following this methodology, we also propose two protocols that allow the capturing of facial behaviors under uncontrolled and real-life situations. As validation, we executed both protocols which lead to creation of two sample databases: FdMiee (Facial database with Multi input, expressions, and environments) and FACIA (Facial Multimodal database driven by emotional induced acting). Using different types of hardware, FdMiee captures facial information under environmental and facial behaviors variations. FACIA is an extension of FdMiee introducing a pipeline to acquire additional facial behaviors and speech using an emotion-acting method. Therefore, this work eases the creation of adaptable database according to algorithm's requirements and applications, leading to simplified validation and testing processes.

* 10 pages, 6 images, Computers & Graphics 

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MERLOT: Multimodal Neural Script Knowledge Models

Jun 10, 2021
Rowan Zellers, Ximing Lu, Jack Hessel, Youngjae Yu, Jae Sung Park, Jize Cao, Ali Farhadi, Yejin Choi

As humans, we understand events in the visual world contextually, performing multimodal reasoning across time to make inferences about the past, present, and future. We introduce MERLOT, a model that learns multimodal script knowledge by watching millions of YouTube videos with transcribed speech -- in an entirely label-free, self-supervised manner. By pretraining with a mix of both frame-level (spatial) and video-level (temporal) objectives, our model not only learns to match images to temporally corresponding words, but also to contextualize what is happening globally over time. As a result, MERLOT exhibits strong out-of-the-box representations of temporal commonsense, and achieves state-of-the-art performance on 12 different video QA datasets when finetuned. It also transfers well to the world of static images, allowing models to reason about the dynamic context behind visual scenes. On Visual Commonsense Reasoning, MERLOT answers questions correctly with 80.6% accuracy, outperforming state-of-the-art models of similar size by over 3%, even those that make heavy use of auxiliary supervised data (like object bounding boxes). Ablation analyses demonstrate the complementary importance of: 1) training on videos versus static images; 2) scaling the magnitude and diversity of the pretraining video corpus; and 3) using diverse objectives that encourage full-stack multimodal reasoning, from the recognition to cognition level.

* project page at https://rowanzellers.com/merlot 

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