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"speech": models, code, and papers

Attention Forcing for Machine Translation

Apr 02, 2021
Qingyun Dou, Yiting Lu, Potsawee Manakul, Xixin Wu, Mark J. F. Gales

Auto-regressive sequence-to-sequence models with attention mechanisms have achieved state-of-the-art performance in various tasks including Text-To-Speech (TTS) and Neural Machine Translation (NMT). The standard training approach, teacher forcing, guides a model with the reference output history. At inference stage, the generated output history must be used. This mismatch can impact performance. However, it is highly challenging to train the model using the generated output. Several approaches have been proposed to address this problem, normally by selectively using the generated output history. To make training stable, these approaches often require a heuristic schedule or an auxiliary classifier. This paper introduces attention forcing for NMT. This approach guides the model with the generated output history and reference attention, and can reduce the training-inference mismatch without a schedule or a classifier. Attention forcing has been successful in TTS, but its application to NMT is more challenging, due to the discrete and multi-modal nature of the output space. To tackle this problem, this paper adds a selection scheme to vanilla attention forcing, which automatically selects a suitable training approach for each pair of training data. Experiments show that attention forcing can improve the overall translation quality and the diversity of the translations.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1909.12289 

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A Hierarchical Reasoning Graph Neural Network for The Automatic Scoring of Answer Transcriptions in Video Job Interviews

Dec 22, 2020
Kai Chen, Meng Niu, Qingcai Chen

We address the task of automatically scoring the competency of candidates based on textual features, from the automatic speech recognition (ASR) transcriptions in the asynchronous video job interview (AVI). The key challenge is how to construct the dependency relation between questions and answers, and conduct the semantic level interaction for each question-answer (QA) pair. However, most of the recent studies in AVI focus on how to represent questions and answers better, but ignore the dependency information and interaction between them, which is critical for QA evaluation. In this work, we propose a Hierarchical Reasoning Graph Neural Network (HRGNN) for the automatic assessment of question-answer pairs. Specifically, we construct a sentence-level relational graph neural network to capture the dependency information of sentences in or between the question and the answer. Based on these graphs, we employ a semantic-level reasoning graph attention network to model the interaction states of the current QA session. Finally, we propose a gated recurrent unit encoder to represent the temporal question-answer pairs for the final prediction. Empirical results conducted on CHNAT (a real-world dataset) validate that our proposed model significantly outperforms text-matching based benchmark models. Ablation studies and experimental results with 10 random seeds also show the effectiveness and stability of our models.

* 9 pages, 2 figures 

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Attention Driven Fusion for Multi-Modal Emotion Recognition

Oct 10, 2020
Darshana Priyasad, Tharindu Fernando, Simon Denman, Clinton Fookes, Sridha Sridharan

Deep learning has emerged as a powerful alternative to hand-crafted methods for emotion recognition on combined acoustic and text modalities. Baseline systems model emotion information in text and acoustic modes independently using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNN) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), followed by applying attention, fusion, and classification. In this paper, we present a deep learning-based approach to exploit and fuse text and acoustic data for emotion classification. We utilize a SincNet layer, based on parameterized sinc functions with band-pass filters, to extract acoustic features from raw audio followed by a DCNN. This approach learns filter banks tuned for emotion recognition and provides more effective features compared to directly applying convolutions over the raw speech signal. For text processing, we use two branches (a DCNN and a Bi-direction RNN followed by a DCNN) in parallel where cross attention is introduced to infer the N-gram level correlations on hidden representations received from the Bi-RNN. Following existing state-of-the-art, we evaluate the performance of the proposed system on the IEMOCAP dataset. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system outperforms existing methods, achieving 3.5% improvement in weighted accuracy.

* An updated version of the ICASSP 2020 paper 

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End-to-End Neural Transformer Based Spoken Language Understanding

Aug 12, 2020
Martin Radfar, Athanasios Mouchtaris, Siegfried Kunzmann

Spoken language understanding (SLU) refers to the process of inferring the semantic information from audio signals. While the neural transformers consistently deliver the best performance among the state-of-the-art neural architectures in field of natural language processing (NLP), their merits in a closely related field, i.e., spoken language understanding (SLU) have not beed investigated. In this paper, we introduce an end-to-end neural transformer-based SLU model that can predict the variable-length domain, intent, and slots vectors embedded in an audio signal with no intermediate token prediction architecture. This new architecture leverages the self-attention mechanism by which the audio signal is transformed to various sub-subspaces allowing to extract the semantic context implied by an utterance. Our end-to-end transformer SLU predicts the domains, intents and slots in the Fluent Speech Commands dataset with accuracy equal to 98.1 \%, 99.6 \%, and 99.6 \%, respectively and outperforms the SLU models that leverage a combination of recurrent and convolutional neural networks by 1.4 \% while the size of our model is 25\% smaller than that of these architectures. Additionally, due to independent sub-space projections in the self-attention layer, the model is highly parallelizable which makes it a good candidate for on-device SLU.

* Interspeech 2020 

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Effects of Language Relatedness for Cross-lingual Transfer Learning in Character-Based Language Models

Jul 22, 2020
Mittul Singh, Peter Smit, Sami Virpioja, Mikko Kurimo

Character-based Neural Network Language Models (NNLM) have the advantage of smaller vocabulary and thus faster training times in comparison to NNLMs based on multi-character units. However, in low-resource scenarios, both the character and multi-character NNLMs suffer from data sparsity. In such scenarios, cross-lingual transfer has improved multi-character NNLM performance by allowing information transfer from a source to the target language. In the same vein, we propose to use cross-lingual transfer for character NNLMs applied to low-resource Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR). However, applying cross-lingual transfer to character NNLMs is not as straightforward. We observe that relatedness of the source language plays an important role in cross-lingual pretraining of character NNLMs. We evaluate this aspect on ASR tasks for two target languages: Finnish (with English and Estonian as source) and Swedish (with Danish, Norwegian, and English as source). Prior work has observed no difference between using the related or unrelated language for multi-character NNLMs. We, however, show that for character-based NNLMs, only pretraining with a related language improves the ASR performance, and using an unrelated language may deteriorate it. We also observe that the benefits are larger when there is much lesser target data than source data.

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Embodied Self-supervised Learning by Coordinated Sampling and Training

Jun 20, 2020
Yifan Sun, Xihong Wu

Self-supervised learning can significantly improve the performance of downstream tasks, however, the dimensions of learned representations normally lack explicit physical meanings. In this work, we propose a novel self-supervised approach to solve inverse problems by employing the corresponding physical forward process so that the learned representations can have explicit physical meanings. The proposed approach works in an analysis-by-synthesis manner to learn an inference network by iteratively sampling and training. At the sampling step, given observed data, the inference network is used to approximate the intractable posterior, from which we sample input parameters and feed them to a physical process to generate data in the observational space; At the training step, the same network is optimized with the sampled paired data. We prove the feasibility of the proposed method by tackling the acoustic-to-articulatory inversion problem to infer articulatory information from speech. Given an articulatory synthesizer, an inference model can be trained completely from scratch with random initialization. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can converge steadily and the network learns to control the articulatory synthesizer to speak like a human. We also demonstrate that trained models can generalize well to unseen speakers or even new languages, and performance can be further improved through self-adaptation.

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Community Detection Clustering via Gumbel Softmax

May 12, 2020
Deepak Bhaskar Acharya, Huaming Zhang

Recently, in many systems such as speech recognition and visual processing, deep learning has been widely implemented. In this research, we are exploring the possibility of using deep learning in community detection among the graph datasets. Graphs have gained growing traction in different fields, including social networks, information graphs, the recommender system, and also life sciences. In this paper, we propose a method of community detection clustering the nodes of various graph datasets. We cluster different category datasets that belong to Affiliation networks, Animal networks, Human contact networks, Human social networks, Miscellaneous networks. The deep learning role in modeling the interaction between nodes in a network allows a revolution in the field of science relevant to graph network analysis. In this paper, we extend the gumbel softmax approach to graph network clustering. The experimental findings on specific graph datasets reveal that the new approach outperforms traditional clustering significantly, which strongly shows the efficacy of deep learning in graph community detection clustering. We do a series of experiments on our graph clustering algorithm, using various datasets: Zachary karate club, Highland Tribe, Train bombing, American Revolution, Dolphins, Zebra, Windsurfers, Les Mis\'erables, Political books.

* 9 Pages, previous title was Clustering for Graph Datasets via Gumbel Softmax 

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Controllable Video Captioning with POS Sequence Guidance Based on Gated Fusion Network

Aug 27, 2019
Bairui Wang, Lin Ma, Wei Zhang, Wenhao Jiang, Jingwen Wang, Wei Liu

In this paper, we propose to guide the video caption generation with Part-of-Speech (POS) information, based on a gated fusion of multiple representations of input videos. We construct a novel gated fusion network, with one particularly designed cross-gating (CG) block, to effectively encode and fuse different types of representations, e.g., the motion and content features of an input video. One POS sequence generator relies on this fused representation to predict the global syntactic structure, which is thereafter leveraged to guide the video captioning generation and control the syntax of the generated sentence. Specifically, a gating strategy is proposed to dynamically and adaptively incorporate the global syntactic POS information into the decoder for generating each word. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets, namely MSR-VTT and MSVD, demonstrate that the proposed model can well exploit complementary information from multiple representations, resulting in improved performances. Moreover, the generated global POS information can well capture the global syntactic structure of the sentence, and thus be exploited to control the syntactic structure of the description. Such POS information not only boosts the video captioning performance but also improves the diversity of the generated captions. Our code is at:

* Accepted by ICCV 2019 

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Space-time error estimates for deep neural network approximations for differential equations

Aug 11, 2019
Philipp Grohs, Fabian Hornung, Arnulf Jentzen, Philipp Zimmermann

Over the last few years deep artificial neural networks (DNNs) have very successfully been used in numerical simulations for a wide variety of computational problems including computer vision, image classification, speech recognition, natural language processing, as well as computational advertisement. In addition, it has recently been proposed to approximate solutions of partial differential equations (PDEs) by means of stochastic learning problems involving DNNs. There are now also a few rigorous mathematical results in the scientific literature which provide error estimates for such deep learning based approximation methods for PDEs. All of these articles provide spatial error estimates for neural network approximations for PDEs but do not provide error estimates for the entire space-time error for the considered neural network approximations. It is the subject of the main result of this article to provide space-time error estimates for DNN approximations of Euler approximations of certain perturbed differential equations. Our proof of this result is based (i) on a certain artificial neural network (ANN) calculus and (ii) on ANN approximation results for products of the form $[0,T]\times \mathbb{R}^d\ni (t,x)\mapsto tx\in \mathbb{R}^d$ where $T\in (0,\infty)$, $d\in \mathbb{N}$, which we both develop within this article.

* 86 pages 

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