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"speech": models, code, and papers

Adversarial Machine Learning in Network Intrusion Detection Systems

Apr 23, 2020
Elie Alhajjar, Paul Maxwell, Nathaniel D. Bastian

Adversarial examples are inputs to a machine learning system intentionally crafted by an attacker to fool the model into producing an incorrect output. These examples have achieved a great deal of success in several domains such as image recognition, speech recognition and spam detection. In this paper, we study the nature of the adversarial problem in Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS). We focus on the attack perspective, which includes techniques to generate adversarial examples capable of evading a variety of machine learning models. More specifically, we explore the use of evolutionary computation (particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm) and deep learning (generative adversarial networks) as tools for adversarial example generation. To assess the performance of these algorithms in evading a NIDS, we apply them to two publicly available data sets, namely the NSL-KDD and UNSW-NB15, and we contrast them to a baseline perturbation method: Monte Carlo simulation. The results show that our adversarial example generation techniques cause high misclassification rates in eleven different machine learning models, along with a voting classifier. Our work highlights the vulnerability of machine learning based NIDS in the face of adversarial perturbation.

* 25 pages, 6 figures, 4 tables 

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Improving Efficiency in Large-Scale Decentralized Distributed Training

Feb 04, 2020
Wei Zhang, Xiaodong Cui, Abdullah Kayi, Mingrui Liu, Ulrich Finkler, Brian Kingsbury, George Saon, Youssef Mroueh, Alper Buyuktosunoglu, Payel Das, David Kung, Michael Picheny

Decentralized Parallel SGD (D-PSGD) and its asynchronous variant Asynchronous Parallel SGD (AD-PSGD) is a family of distributed learning algorithms that have been demonstrated to perform well for large-scale deep learning tasks. One drawback of (A)D-PSGD is that the spectral gap of the mixing matrix decreases when the number of learners in the system increases, which hampers convergence. In this paper, we investigate techniques to accelerate (A)D-PSGD based training by improving the spectral gap while minimizing the communication cost. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed techniques by running experiments on the 2000-hour Switchboard speech recognition task and the ImageNet computer vision task. On an IBM P9 supercomputer, our system is able to train an LSTM acoustic model in 2.28 hours with 7.5% WER on the Hub5-2000 Switchboard (SWB) test set and 13.3% WER on the CallHome (CH) test set using 64 V100 GPUs and in 1.98 hours with 7.7% WER on SWB and 13.3% WER on CH using 128 V100 GPUs, the fastest training time reported to date.

* 45th International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP'2020) Oral 

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MelGAN: Generative Adversarial Networks for Conditional Waveform Synthesis

Oct 28, 2019
Kundan Kumar, Rithesh Kumar, Thibault de Boissiere, Lucas Gestin, Wei Zhen Teoh, Jose Sotelo, Alexandre de Brebisson, Yoshua Bengio, Aaron Courville

Previous works (Donahue et al., 2018a; Engel et al., 2019a) have found that generating coherent raw audio waveforms with GANs is challenging. In this paper, we show that it is possible to train GANs reliably to generate high quality coherent waveforms by introducing a set of architectural changes and simple training techniques. Subjective evaluation metric (Mean Opinion Score, or MOS) shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach for high quality mel-spectrogram inversion. To establish the generality of the proposed techniques, we show qualitative results of our model in speech synthesis, music domain translation and unconditional music synthesis. We evaluate the various components of the model through ablation studies and suggest a set of guidelines to design general purpose discriminators and generators for conditional sequence synthesis tasks. Our model is non-autoregressive, fully convolutional, with significantly fewer parameters than competing models and generalizes to unseen speakers for mel-spectrogram inversion. Our pytorch implementation runs at more than 100x faster than realtime on GTX 1080Ti GPU and more than 2x faster than real-time on CPU, without any hardware specific optimization tricks.

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Random Directional Attack for Fooling Deep Neural Networks

Aug 06, 2019
Wenjian Luo, Chenwang Wu, Nan Zhou, Li Ni

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have been widely used in many fields such as images processing, speech recognition; however, they are vulnerable to adversarial examples, and this is a security issue worthy of attention. Because the training process of DNNs converge the loss by updating the weights along the gradient descent direction, many gradient-based methods attempt to destroy the DNN model by adding perturbations in the gradient direction. Unfortunately, as the model is nonlinear in most cases, the addition of perturbations in the gradient direction does not necessarily increase loss. Thus, we propose a random directed attack (RDA) for generating adversarial examples in this paper. Rather than limiting the gradient direction to generate an attack, RDA searches the attack direction based on hill climbing and uses multiple strategies to avoid local optima that cause attack failure. Compared with state-of-the-art gradient-based methods, the attack performance of RDA is very competitive. Moreover, RDA can attack without any internal knowledge of the model, and its performance under black-box attack is similar to that of the white-box attack in most cases, which is difficult to achieve using existing gradient-based attack methods.

* 13pages 

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Singing Voice Synthesis Using Deep Autoregressive Neural Networks for Acoustic Modeling

Jun 21, 2019
Yuan-Hao Yi, Yang Ai, Zhen-Hua Ling, Li-Rong Dai

This paper presents a method of using autoregressive neural networks for the acoustic modeling of singing voice synthesis (SVS). Singing voice differs from speech and it contains more local dynamic movements of acoustic features, e.g., vibratos. Therefore, our method adopts deep autoregressive (DAR) models to predict the F0 and spectral features of singing voice in order to better describe the dependencies among the acoustic features of consecutive frames. For F0 modeling, discretized F0 values are used and the influences of the history length in DAR are analyzed by experiments. An F0 post-processing strategy is also designed to alleviate the inconsistency between the predicted F0 contours and the F0 values determined by music notes. Furthermore, we extend the DAR model to deal with continuous spectral features, and a prenet module with self-attention layers is introduced to process historical frames. Experiments on a Chinese singing voice corpus demonstrate that our method using DARs can produce F0 contours with vibratos effectively, and can achieve better objective and subjective performance than the conventional method using recurrent neural networks (RNNs).

* Interspeech2019 

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Joint entity recognition and relation extraction as a multi-head selection problem

Aug 16, 2018
Giannis Bekoulis, Johannes Deleu, Thomas Demeester, Chris Develder

State-of-the-art models for joint entity recognition and relation extraction strongly rely on external natural language processing (NLP) tools such as POS (part-of-speech) taggers and dependency parsers. Thus, the performance of such joint models depends on the quality of the features obtained from these NLP tools. However, these features are not always accurate for various languages and contexts. In this paper, we propose a joint neural model which performs entity recognition and relation extraction simultaneously, without the need of any manually extracted features or the use of any external tool. Specifically, we model the entity recognition task using a CRF (Conditional Random Fields) layer and the relation extraction task as a multi-head selection problem (i.e., potentially identify multiple relations for each entity). We present an extensive experimental setup, to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method using datasets from various contexts (i.e., news, biomedical, real estate) and languages (i.e., English, Dutch). Our model outperforms the previous neural models that use automatically extracted features, while it performs within a reasonable margin of feature-based neural models, or even beats them.

* Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 114, 30 December 2018, Pages 34-45, ISSN 0957-4174 
* Preprint - Accepted for publication in Expert Systems with Applications 

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Word learning and the acquisition of syntactic--semantic overhypotheses

May 14, 2018
Jon Gauthier, Roger Levy, Joshua B. Tenenbaum

Children learning their first language face multiple problems of induction: how to learn the meanings of words, and how to build meaningful phrases from those words according to syntactic rules. We consider how children might solve these problems efficiently by solving them jointly, via a computational model that learns the syntax and semantics of multi-word utterances in a grounded reference game. We select a well-studied empirical case in which children are aware of patterns linking the syntactic and semantic properties of words --- that the properties picked out by base nouns tend to be related to shape, while prenominal adjectives tend to refer to other properties such as color. We show that children applying such inductive biases are accurately reflecting the statistics of child-directed speech, and that inducing similar biases in our computational model captures children's behavior in a classic adjective learning experiment. Our model incorporating such biases also demonstrates a clear data efficiency in learning, relative to a baseline model that learns without forming syntax-sensitive overhypotheses of word meaning. Thus solving a more complex joint inference problem may make the full problem of language acquisition easier, not harder.

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First Impressions: A Survey on Computer Vision-Based Apparent Personality Trait Analysis

Apr 21, 2018
Julio C. S. Jacques Junior, Yağmur Güçlütürk, Marc Pérez, Umut Güçlü, Carlos Andujar, Xavier Baró, Hugo Jair Escalante, Isabelle Guyon, Marcel A. J. van Gerven, Rob van Lier, Sergio Escalera

Personality analysis has been widely studied in psychology, neuropsychology, signal processing fields, among others. From the computing point of view, by far speech and text have been the most analyzed cues of information for analyzing personality. However, recently there has been an increasing interest form the computer vision community in analyzing personality starting from visual information. Recent computer vision approaches are able to accurately analyze human faces, body postures and behaviors, and use these information to infer apparent personality traits. Because of the overwhelming research interest in this topic, and of the potential impact that this sort of methods could have in society, we present in this paper an up-to-date review of existing computer vision-based visual and multimodal approaches for apparent personality trait recognition. We describe seminal and cutting edge works on the subject, discussing and comparing their distinctive features. More importantly, future venues of research in the field are identified and discussed. Furthermore, aspects on the subjectivity in data labeling/evaluation, as well as current datasets and challenges organized to push the research on the field are reviewed. Hence, the survey provides an up-to-date review of research progress in a wide range of aspects of this research theme.

* submitted to IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing 

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Multimodal Signal Processing and Learning Aspects of Human-Robot Interaction for an Assistive Bathing Robot

Nov 06, 2017
A. Zlatintsi, I. Rodomagoulakis, P. Koutras, A. C. Dometios, V. Pitsikalis, C. S. Tzafestas, P. Maragos

We explore new aspects of assistive living on smart human-robot interaction (HRI) that involve automatic recognition and online validation of speech and gestures in a natural interface, providing social features for HRI. We introduce a whole framework and resources of a real-life scenario for elderly subjects supported by an assistive bathing robot, addressing health and hygiene care issues. We contribute a new dataset and a suite of tools used for data acquisition and a state-of-the-art pipeline for multimodal learning within the framework of the I-Support bathing robot, with emphasis on audio and RGB-D visual streams. We consider privacy issues by evaluating the depth visual stream along with the RGB, using Kinect sensors. The audio-gestural recognition task on this new dataset yields up to 84.5%, while the online validation of the I-Support system on elderly users accomplishes up to 84% when the two modalities are fused together. The results are promising enough to support further research in the area of multimodal recognition for assistive social HRI, considering the difficulties of the specific task. Upon acceptance of the paper part of the data will be publicly available.

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Explainable Artificial Intelligence: Understanding, Visualizing and Interpreting Deep Learning Models

Aug 28, 2017
Wojciech Samek, Thomas Wiegand, Klaus-Robert Müller

With the availability of large databases and recent improvements in deep learning methodology, the performance of AI systems is reaching or even exceeding the human level on an increasing number of complex tasks. Impressive examples of this development can be found in domains such as image classification, sentiment analysis, speech understanding or strategic game playing. However, because of their nested non-linear structure, these highly successful machine learning and artificial intelligence models are usually applied in a black box manner, i.e., no information is provided about what exactly makes them arrive at their predictions. Since this lack of transparency can be a major drawback, e.g., in medical applications, the development of methods for visualizing, explaining and interpreting deep learning models has recently attracted increasing attention. This paper summarizes recent developments in this field and makes a plea for more interpretability in artificial intelligence. Furthermore, it presents two approaches to explaining predictions of deep learning models, one method which computes the sensitivity of the prediction with respect to changes in the input and one approach which meaningfully decomposes the decision in terms of the input variables. These methods are evaluated on three classification tasks.

* 8 pages, 2 figures 

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