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"speech": models, code, and papers

Discovery of Important Subsequences in Electrocardiogram Beats Using the Nearest Neighbour Algorithm

Jan 26, 2019
Ricards Marcinkevics, Steven Kelk, Carlo Galuzzi, Berthold Stegemann

The classification of time series data is a well-studied problem with numerous practical applications, such as medical diagnosis and speech recognition. A popular and effective approach is to classify new time series in the same way as their nearest neighbours, whereby proximity is defined using Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) distance, a measure analogous to sequence alignment in bioinformatics. However, practitioners are not only interested in accurate classification, they are also interested in why a time series is classified a certain way. To this end, we introduce here the problem of finding a minimum length subsequence of a time series, the removal of which changes the outcome of the classification under the nearest neighbour algorithm with DTW distance. Informally, such a subsequence is expected to be relevant for the classification and can be helpful for practitioners in interpreting the outcome. We describe a simple but optimized implementation for detecting these subsequences and define an accompanying measure to quantify the relevance of every time point in the time series for the classification. In tests on electrocardiogram data we show that the algorithm allows discovery of important subsequences and can be helpful in detecting abnormalities in cardiac rhythms distinguishing sick from healthy patients.

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Computing Word Classes Using Spectral Clustering

Aug 16, 2018
Effi Levi, Saggy Herman, Ari Rappoport

Clustering a lexicon of words is a well-studied problem in natural language processing (NLP). Word clusters are used to deal with sparse data in statistical language processing, as well as features for solving various NLP tasks (text categorization, question answering, named entity recognition and others). Spectral clustering is a widely used technique in the field of image processing and speech recognition. However, it has scarcely been explored in the context of NLP; specifically, the method used in this (Meila and Shi, 2001) has never been used to cluster a general word lexicon. We apply spectral clustering to a lexicon of words, evaluating the resulting clusters by using them as features for solving two classical NLP tasks: semantic role labeling and dependency parsing. We compare performance with Brown clustering, a widely-used technique for word clustering, as well as with other clustering methods. We show that spectral clusters produce similar results to Brown clusters, and outperform other clustering methods. In addition, we quantify the overlap between spectral and Brown clusters, showing that each model captures some information which is uncaptured by the other.

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OntoSenseNet: A Verb-Centric Ontological Resource for Indian Languages

Aug 02, 2018
Jyoti Jha, Sreekavitha Parupalli, Navjyoti Singh

Following approaches for understanding lexical meaning developed by Yaska, Patanjali and Bhartrihari from Indian linguistic traditions and extending approaches developed by Leibniz and Brentano in the modern times, a framework of formal ontology of language was developed. This framework proposes that meaning of words are in-formed by intrinsic and extrinsic ontological structures. The paper aims to capture such intrinsic and extrinsic meanings of words for two major Indian languages, namely, Hindi and Telugu. Parts-of-speech have been rendered into sense-types and sense-classes. Using them we have developed a gold- standard annotated lexical resource to support semantic understanding of a language. The resource has collection of Hindi and Telugu lexicons, which has been manually annotated by native speakers of the languages following our annotation guidelines. Further, the resource was utilised to derive adverbial sense-class distribution of verbs and karaka-verb sense- type distribution. Different corpora (news, novels) were compared using verb sense-types distribution. Word Embedding was used as an aid for the enrichment of the resource. This is a work in progress that aims at lexical coverage of language extensively.

* 14 pages, 8 tables, 2 figures 

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From Nodes to Networks: Evolving Recurrent Neural Networks

Jun 07, 2018
Aditya Rawal, Risto Miikkulainen

Gated recurrent networks such as those composed of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) nodes have recently been used to improve state of the art in many sequential processing tasks such as speech recognition and machine translation. However, the basic structure of the LSTM node is essentially the same as when it was first conceived 25 years ago. Recently, evolutionary and reinforcement learning mechanisms have been employed to create new variations of this structure. This paper proposes a new method, evolution of a tree-based encoding of the gated memory nodes, and shows that it makes it possible to explore new variations more effectively than other methods. The method discovers nodes with multiple recurrent paths and multiple memory cells, which lead to significant improvement in the standard language modeling benchmark task. The paper also shows how the search process can be speeded up by training an LSTM network to estimate performance of candidate structures, and by encouraging exploration of novel solutions. Thus, evolutionary design of complex neural network structures promises to improve performance of deep learning architectures beyond human ability to do so.

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A Non-Technical Survey on Deep Convolutional Neural Network Architectures

Mar 06, 2018
Felix Altenberger, Claus Lenz

Artificial neural networks have recently shown great results in many disciplines and a variety of applications, including natural language understanding, speech processing, games and image data generation. One particular application in which the strong performance of artificial neural networks was demonstrated is the recognition of objects in images, where deep convolutional neural networks are commonly applied. In this survey, we give a comprehensive introduction to this topic (object recognition with deep convolutional neural networks), with a strong focus on the evolution of network architectures. Therefore, we aim to compress the most important concepts in this field in a simple and non-technical manner to allow for future researchers to have a quick general understanding. This work is structured as follows: 1. We will explain the basic ideas of (convolutional) neural networks and deep learning and examine their usage for three object recognition tasks: image classification, object localization and object detection. 2. We give a review on the evolution of deep convolutional neural networks by providing an extensive overview of the most important network architectures presented in chronological order of their appearances.

* 17 pages (incl. references), 23 Postscript figures, uses IEEEtran 

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Optimization Methods for Convolutional Sparse Coding

Jun 10, 2014
Hilton Bristow, Simon Lucey

Sparse and convolutional constraints form a natural prior for many optimization problems that arise from physical processes. Detecting motifs in speech and musical passages, super-resolving images, compressing videos, and reconstructing harmonic motions can all leverage redundancies introduced by convolution. Solving problems involving sparse and convolutional constraints remains a difficult computational problem, however. In this paper we present an overview of convolutional sparse coding in a consistent framework. The objective involves iteratively optimizing a convolutional least-squares term for the basis functions, followed by an L1-regularized least squares term for the sparse coefficients. We discuss a range of optimization methods for solving the convolutional sparse coding objective, and the properties that make each method suitable for different applications. In particular, we concentrate on computational complexity, speed to {\epsilon} convergence, memory usage, and the effect of implied boundary conditions. We present a broad suite of examples covering different signal and application domains to illustrate the general applicability of convolutional sparse coding, and the efficacy of the available optimization methods.

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Bandwidth-Scalable Fully Mask-Based Deep FCRN Acoustic Echo Cancellation and Postfiltering

May 09, 2022
Ernst Seidel, Rasmus Kongsgaard Olsson, Karim Haddad, Zhengyang Li, Pejman Mowlaee, Tim Fingscheidt

Although today's speech communication systems support various bandwidths from narrowband to super-wideband and beyond, state-of-the art DNN methods for acoustic echo cancellation (AEC) are lacking modularity and bandwidth scalability. Our proposed DNN model builds upon a fully convolutional recurrent network (FCRN) and introduces scalability over various bandwidths up to a fullband (FB) system (48 kHz sampling rate). This modular approach allows joint wideband (WB) pre-training of mask-based AEC and postfilter stages with dedicated losses, followed by a separate training of them on FB data. A third lightweight blind bandwidth extension stage is separately trained on FB data, flexibly allowing to extend the WB postfilter output towards higher bandwidths until reaching FB. Thereby, higher frequency noise and echo are reliably suppressed. On the ICASSP 2022 Acoustic Echo Cancellation Challenge blind test set we report a competitive performance, showing robustness even under highly delayed echo and dynamic echo path changes.

* 5 pages, 1 figure, submitted to IWAENC 2022 

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Analyzing the Intensity of Complaints on Social Media

Apr 20, 2022
Ming Fang, Shi Zong, Jing Li, Xinyu Dai, Shujian Huang, Jiajun Chen

Complaining is a speech act that expresses a negative inconsistency between reality and human expectations. While prior studies mostly focus on identifying the existence or the type of complaints, in this work, we present the first study in computational linguistics of measuring the intensity of complaints from text. Analyzing complaints from such perspective is particularly useful, as complaints of certain degrees may cause severe consequences for companies or organizations. We create the first Chinese dataset containing 3,103 posts about complaints from Weibo, a popular Chinese social media platform. These posts are then annotated with complaints intensity scores using Best-Worst Scaling (BWS) method. We show that complaints intensity can be accurately estimated by computational models with the best mean square error achieving 0.11. Furthermore, we conduct a comprehensive linguistic analysis around complaints, including the connections between complaints and sentiment, and a cross-lingual comparison for complaints expressions used by Chinese and English speakers. We finally show that our complaints intensity scores can be incorporated for better estimating the popularity of posts on social media.

* NAACL 2022 (Findings) 

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A Universality-Individuality Integration Model for Dialog Act Classification

Apr 13, 2022
Gao Pengfei, Ma Yinglong

Dialog Act (DA) reveals the general intent of the speaker utterance in a conversation. Accurately predicting DAs can greatly facilitate the development of dialog agents. Although researchers have done extensive research on dialog act classification, the feature information of classification has not been fully considered. This paper suggests that word cues, part-of-speech cues and statistical cues can complement each other to improve the basis for recognition. In addition, the different types of the three lead to the diversity of their distribution forms, which hinders the mining of feature information. To solve this problem, we propose a novel model based on universality and individuality strategies, called Universality-Individuality Integration Model (UIIM). UIIM not only deepens the connection between the clues by learning universality, but also utilizes the learning of individuality to capture the characteristics of the clues themselves. Experiments were made over two most popular benchmark data sets SwDA and MRDA for dialogue act classification, and the results show that extracting the universalities and individualities between cues can more fully excavate the hidden information in the utterance, and improve the accuracy of automatic dialogue act recognition.

* 12 pages, 1 figure, 2 tables 

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HEAR 2021: Holistic Evaluation of Audio Representations

Mar 26, 2022
Joseph Turian, Jordie Shier, Humair Raj Khan, Bhiksha Raj, Björn W. Schuller, Christian J. Steinmetz, Colin Malloy, George Tzanetakis, Gissel Velarde, Kirk McNally, Max Henry, Nicolas Pinto, Camille Noufi, Christian Clough, Dorien Herremans, Eduardo Fonseca, Jesse Engel, Justin Salamon, Philippe Esling, Pranay Manocha, Shinji Watanabe, Zeyu Jin, Yonatan Bisk

What audio embedding approach generalizes best to a wide range of downstream tasks across a variety of everyday domains without fine-tuning? The aim of the HEAR 2021 NeurIPS challenge is to develop a general-purpose audio representation that provides a strong basis for learning in a wide variety of tasks and scenarios. HEAR 2021 evaluates audio representations using a benchmark suite across a variety of domains, including speech, environmental sound, and music. In the spirit of shared exchange, each participant submitted an audio embedding model following a common API that is general-purpose, open-source, and freely available to use. Twenty-nine models by thirteen external teams were evaluated on nineteen diverse downstream tasks derived from sixteen datasets. Open evaluation code, submitted models and datasets are key contributions, enabling comprehensive and reproducible evaluation, as well as previously impossible longitudinal studies. It still remains an open question whether one single general-purpose audio representation can perform as holistically as the human ear.

* to appear in Proceedings of Machine Learning Research (PMLR): NeurIPS 2021 Competition Track 

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