Conv-TasNet is a recently proposed waveform-based deep neural network that achieves state-of-the-art performance in speech source separation. Its architecture consists of a learnable encoder/decoder and a separator that operates on top of this learned space. Various improvements have been proposed to Conv-TasNet. However, they mostly focus on the separator, leaving its encoder/decoder as a (shallow) linear operator. In this paper, we conduct an empirical study of Conv-TasNet and propose an enhancement to the encoder/decoder that is based on a (deep) non-linear variant of it. In addition, we experiment with the larger and more diverse LibriTTS dataset and investigate the generalization capabilities of the studied models when trained on a much larger dataset. We propose cross-dataset evaluation that includes assessing separations from the WSJ0-2mix, LibriTTS and VCTK databases. Our results show that enhancements to the encoder/decoder can improve average SI-SNR performance by more than 1 dB. Furthermore, we offer insights into the generalization capabilities of Conv-TasNet and the potential value of improvements to the encoder/decoder.
In this work, we propose WaveFlow, a small-footprint generative flow for raw audio, which is directly trained with maximum likelihood. WaveFlow handles the long-range structure of waveform with a dilated 2-D convolutional architecture, while modeling the local variations using compact autoregressive functions. It provides a unified view of likelihood-based models for raw audio, including WaveNet and WaveGlow as special cases. WaveFlow can generate high-fidelity speech as WaveNet, while synthesizing several orders of magnitude faster as it only requires a few sequential steps to generate waveforms with hundreds of thousands of time-steps. Furthermore, it can close the significant likelihood gap that has existed between autoregressive models and flow-based models for efficient synthesis. Finally, our small-footprint WaveFlow has 15$\times$ fewer parameters than WaveGlow and can generate 22.05 kHz high-fidelity audio 42.6$\times$ faster than real-time on a V100 GPU without engineered inference kernels.
In recent years, the biggest advances in major Computer Vision tasks, such as object recognition, handwritten-digit identification, facial recognition, and many others., have all come through the use of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Similarly, in the domain of Natural Language Processing, Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), and Long Short Term Memory networks (LSTMs) in particular, have been crucial to some of the biggest breakthroughs in performance for tasks such as machine translation, part-of-speech tagging, sentiment analysis, and many others. These individual advances have greatly benefited tasks even at the intersection of NLP and Computer Vision, and inspired by this success, we studied some existing neural image captioning models that have proven to work well. In this work, we study some existing captioning models that provide near state-of-the-art performances, and try to enhance one such model. We also present a simple image captioning model that makes use of a CNN, an LSTM, and the beam search1 algorithm, and study its performance based on various qualitative and quantitative metrics.
Deep Neural Networks have achieved huge success at a wide spectrum of applications from language modeling, computer vision to speech recognition. However, nowadays, good performance alone is not sufficient to satisfy the needs of practical deployment where interpretability is demanded for cases involving ethics and mission critical applications. The complex models of Deep Neural Networks make it hard to understand and reason the predictions, which hinders its further progress. To tackle this problem, we apply the Knowledge Distillation technique to distill Deep Neural Networks into decision trees in order to attain good performance and interpretability simultaneously. We formulate the problem at hand as a multi-output regression problem and the experiments demonstrate that the student model achieves significantly better accuracy performance (about 1\% to 5\%) than vanilla decision trees at the same level of tree depth. The experiments are implemented on the TensorFlow platform to make it scalable to big datasets. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to distill Deep Neural Networks into vanilla decision trees on multi-class datasets.
Recent studies have highlighted adversarial examples as a ubiquitous threat to different neural network models and many downstream applications. Nonetheless, as unique data properties have inspired distinct and powerful learning principles, this paper aims to explore their potentials towards mitigating adversarial inputs. In particular, our results reveal the importance of using the temporal dependency in audio data to gain discriminate power against adversarial examples. Tested on the automatic speech recognition (ASR) tasks and three recent audio adversarial attacks, we find that (i) input transformation developed from image adversarial defense provides limited robustness improvement and is subtle to advanced attacks; (ii) temporal dependency can be exploited to gain discriminative power against audio adversarial examples and is resistant to adaptive attacks considered in our experiments. Our results not only show promising means of improving the robustness of ASR systems, but also offer novel insights in exploiting domain-specific data properties to mitigate negative effects of adversarial examples.
Deep neural networks are the state-of-the-art methods for many real-world tasks, such as computer vision, natural language processing and speech recognition. For all its popularity, deep neural networks are also criticized for consuming a lot of memory and draining battery life of devices during training and inference. This makes it hard to deploy these models on mobile or embedded devices which have tight resource constraints. Quantization is recognized as one of the most effective approaches to satisfy the extreme memory requirements that deep neural network models demand. Instead of adopting 32-bit floating point format to represent weights, quantized representations store weights using more compact formats such as integers or even binary numbers. Despite a possible degradation in predictive performance, quantization provides a potential solution to greatly reduce the model size and the energy consumption. In this survey, we give a thorough review of different aspects of quantized neural networks. Current challenges and trends of quantized neural networks are also discussed.
Advancements in genomic research such as high-throughput sequencing techniques have driven modern genomic studies into "big data" disciplines. This data explosion is constantly challenging conventional methods used in genomics. In parallel with the urgent demand for robust algorithms, deep learning has succeeded in a variety of fields such as vision, speech, and text processing. Yet genomics entails unique challenges to deep learning since we are expecting from deep learning a superhuman intelligence that explores beyond our knowledge to interpret the genome. A powerful deep learning model should rely on insightful utilization of task-specific knowledge. In this paper, we briefly discuss the strengths of different deep learning models from a genomic perspective so as to fit each particular task with a proper deep architecture, and remark on practical considerations of developing modern deep learning architectures for genomics. We also provide a concise review of deep learning applications in various aspects of genomic research, as well as pointing out potential opportunities and obstacles for future genomics applications.
We propose a probabilistic framework for domain adaptation that blends both generative and discriminative modeling in a principled way. Under this framework, generative and discriminative models correspond to specific choices of the prior over parameters. This provides us a very general way to interpolate between generative and discriminative extremes through different choices of priors. By maximizing both the marginal and the conditional log-likelihoods, models derived from this framework can use both labeled instances from the source domain as well as unlabeled instances from both source and target domains. Under this framework, we show that the popular reconstruction loss of autoencoder corresponds to an upper bound of the negative marginal log-likelihoods of unlabeled instances, where marginal distributions are given by proper kernel density estimations. This provides a way to interpret the empirical success of autoencoders in domain adaptation and semi-supervised learning. We instantiate our framework using neural networks, and build a concrete model, DAuto. Empirically, we demonstrate the effectiveness of DAuto on text, image and speech datasets, showing that it outperforms related competitors when domain adaptation is possible.
Probabilistic methods for classifying text form a rich tradition in machine learning and natural language processing. For many important problems, however, class prediction is uninteresting because the class is known, and instead the focus shifts to estimating latent quantities related to the text, such as affect or ideology. We focus on one such problem of interest, estimating the ideological positions of 55 Irish legislators in the 1991 D\'ail confidence vote. To solve the D\'ail scaling problem and others like it, we develop a text modeling framework that allows actors to take latent positions on a "gray" spectrum between "black" and "white" polar opposites. We are able to validate results from this model by measuring the influences exhibited by individual words, and we are able to quantify the uncertainty in the scaling estimates by using a sentence-level block bootstrap. Applying our method to the D\'ail debate, we are able to scale the legislators between extreme pro-government and pro-opposition in a way that reveals nuances in their speeches not captured by their votes or party affiliations.