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"speech": models, code, and papers

Geometric Understanding of Deep Learning

May 31, 2018
Na Lei, Zhongxuan Luo, Shing-Tung Yau, David Xianfeng Gu

Deep learning is the mainstream technique for many machine learning tasks, including image recognition, machine translation, speech recognition, and so on. It has outperformed conventional methods in various fields and achieved great successes. Unfortunately, the understanding on how it works remains unclear. It has the central importance to lay down the theoretic foundation for deep learning. In this work, we give a geometric view to understand deep learning: we show that the fundamental principle attributing to the success is the manifold structure in data, namely natural high dimensional data concentrates close to a low-dimensional manifold, deep learning learns the manifold and the probability distribution on it. We further introduce the concepts of rectified linear complexity for deep neural network measuring its learning capability, rectified linear complexity of an embedding manifold describing the difficulty to be learned. Then we show for any deep neural network with fixed architecture, there exists a manifold that cannot be learned by the network. Finally, we propose to apply optimal mass transportation theory to control the probability distribution in the latent space.


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From Captions to Visual Concepts and Back

Apr 14, 2015
Hao Fang, Saurabh Gupta, Forrest Iandola, Rupesh Srivastava, Li Deng, Piotr Dollár, Jianfeng Gao, Xiaodong He, Margaret Mitchell, John C. Platt, C. Lawrence Zitnick, Geoffrey Zweig

This paper presents a novel approach for automatically generating image descriptions: visual detectors, language models, and multimodal similarity models learnt directly from a dataset of image captions. We use multiple instance learning to train visual detectors for words that commonly occur in captions, including many different parts of speech such as nouns, verbs, and adjectives. The word detector outputs serve as conditional inputs to a maximum-entropy language model. The language model learns from a set of over 400,000 image descriptions to capture the statistics of word usage. We capture global semantics by re-ranking caption candidates using sentence-level features and a deep multimodal similarity model. Our system is state-of-the-art on the official Microsoft COCO benchmark, producing a BLEU-4 score of 29.1%. When human judges compare the system captions to ones written by other people on our held-out test set, the system captions have equal or better quality 34% of the time.

* version corresponding to CVPR15 paper 

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MetaAudio: A Few-Shot Audio Classification Benchmark

Apr 10, 2022
Calum Heggan, Sam Budgett, Timothy Hospedales, Mehrdad Yaghoobi

Currently available benchmarks for few-shot learning (machine learning with few training examples) are limited in the domains they cover, primarily focusing on image classification. This work aims to alleviate this reliance on image-based benchmarks by offering the first comprehensive, public and fully reproducible audio based alternative, covering a variety of sound domains and experimental settings. We compare the few-shot classification performance of a variety of techniques on seven audio datasets (spanning environmental sounds to human-speech). Extending this, we carry out in-depth analyses of joint training (where all datasets are used during training) and cross-dataset adaptation protocols, establishing the possibility of a generalised audio few-shot classification algorithm. Our experimentation shows gradient-based meta-learning methods such as MAML and Meta-Curvature consistently outperform both metric and baseline methods. We also demonstrate that the joint training routine helps overall generalisation for the environmental sound databases included, as well as being a somewhat-effective method of tackling the cross-dataset/domain setting.

* 9 pages with 1 figure and 2 main results tables. V1 Preprint 

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Self-supervised curriculum learning for speaker verification

Apr 05, 2022
Hee-Soo Heo, Jee-weon Jung, Jingu Kang, Youngki Kwon, You Jin Kim, Bong-Jin Lee, Joon Son Chung

Self-supervised learning is one of the emerging approaches to machine learning today, and has been successfully applied to vision, speech and natural processing tasks. There is a range of frameworks within self-supervised learning literature, but the speaker recognition literature has particularly adopted self-supervision via contrastive loss functions. Our work adapts the DINO framework for speaker recognition, in which the model is trained without exploiting negative utterance pairs. We introduce a curriculum learning strategy to the self-supervised framework, which guides effective training of speaker recognition models. In particular, we propose two curriculum strategies where one gradually increases the number of speakers in training dataset, and the other gradually applies augmentations to more utterances within a mini-batch as the training proceeds. A range of experiments conducted on the VoxCeleb1 evaluation protocol demonstrate the effectiveness of both the DINO framework on speaker verification and our proposed curriculum learning strategies. We report the state-of-the-art equal error rate of 4.47% with a single-phase training.

* submitted to INTERSPEECH 2022 as a conference paper. 5 pages, 2 figures, 4 tables 

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'Beach' to 'Bitch': Inadvertent Unsafe Transcription of Kids' Content on YouTube

Feb 17, 2022
Krithika Ramesh, Ashiqur R. KhudaBukhsh, Sumeet Kumar

Over the last few years, YouTube Kids has emerged as one of the highly competitive alternatives to television for children's entertainment. Consequently, YouTube Kids' content should receive an additional level of scrutiny to ensure children's safety. While research on detecting offensive or inappropriate content for kids is gaining momentum, little or no current work exists that investigates to what extent AI applications can (accidentally) introduce content that is inappropriate for kids. In this paper, we present a novel (and troubling) finding that well-known automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems may produce text content highly inappropriate for kids while transcribing YouTube Kids' videos. We dub this phenomenon as \emph{inappropriate content hallucination}. Our analyses suggest that such hallucinations are far from occasional, and the ASR systems often produce them with high confidence. We release a first-of-its-kind data set of audios for which the existing state-of-the-art ASR systems hallucinate inappropriate content for kids. In addition, we demonstrate that some of these errors can be fixed using language models.

* This paper got accepted at AAAI 2022, AI for Social Impact track 

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Unified Multimodal Punctuation Restoration Framework for Mixed-Modality Corpus

Jan 24, 2022
Yaoming Zhu, Liwei Wu, Shanbo Cheng, Mingxuan Wang

The punctuation restoration task aims to correctly punctuate the output transcriptions of automatic speech recognition systems. Previous punctuation models, either using text only or demanding the corresponding audio, tend to be constrained by real scenes, where unpunctuated sentences are a mixture of those with and without audio. This paper proposes a unified multimodal punctuation restoration framework, named UniPunc, to punctuate the mixed sentences with a single model. UniPunc jointly represents audio and non-audio samples in a shared latent space, based on which the model learns a hybrid representation and punctuates both kinds of samples. We validate the effectiveness of the UniPunc on real-world datasets, which outperforms various strong baselines (e.g. BERT, MuSe) by at least 0.8 overall F1 scores, making a new state-of-the-art. Extensive experiments show that UniPunc's design is a pervasive solution: by grafting onto previous models, UniPunc enables them to punctuate on the mixed corpus. Our code is available at github.com/Yaoming95/UniPunc

* 5 pages, accepted by ICASSP'2022 

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A singular Riemannian geometry approach to Deep Neural Networks I. Theoretical foundations

Dec 17, 2021
Alessandro Benfenati, Alessio Marta

Deep Neural Networks are widely used for solving complex problems in several scientific areas, such as speech recognition, machine translation, image analysis. The strategies employed to investigate their theoretical properties mainly rely on Euclidean geometry, but in the last years new approaches based on Riemannian geometry have been developed. Motivated by some open problems, we study a particular sequence of maps between manifolds, with the last manifold of the sequence equipped with a Riemannian metric. We investigate the structures induced trough pullbacks on the other manifolds of the sequence and on some related quotients. In particular, we show that the pullbacks of the final Riemannian metric to any manifolds of the sequence is a degenerate Riemannian metric inducing a structure of pseudometric space, we show that the Kolmogorov quotient of this pseudometric space yields a smooth manifold, which is the base space of a particular vertical bundle. We investigate the theoretical properties of the maps of such sequence, eventually we focus on the case of maps between manifolds implementing neural networks of practical interest and we present some applications of the geometric framework we introduced in the first part of the paper.


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Infusing Future Information into Monotonic Attention Through Language Models

Sep 07, 2021
Mohd Abbas Zaidi, Sathish Indurthi, Beomseok Lee, Nikhil Kumar Lakumarapu, Sangha Kim

Simultaneous neural machine translation(SNMT) models start emitting the target sequence before they have processed the source sequence. The recent adaptive policies for SNMT use monotonic attention to perform read/write decisions based on the partial source and target sequences. The lack of sufficient information might cause the monotonic attention to take poor read/write decisions, which in turn negatively affects the performance of the SNMT model. On the other hand, human translators make better read/write decisions since they can anticipate the immediate future words using linguistic information and domain knowledge.Motivated by human translators, in this work, we propose a framework to aid monotonic attention with an external language model to improve its decisions.We conduct experiments on the MuST-C English-German and English-French speech-to-text translation tasks to show the effectiveness of the proposed framework.The proposed SNMT method improves the quality-latency trade-off over the state-of-the-art monotonic multihead attention.


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Improving a neural network model by explanation-guided training for glioma classification based on MRI data

Jul 05, 2021
Frantisek Sefcik, Wanda Benesova

In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) systems have come to the forefront. These systems, mostly based on Deep learning (DL), achieve excellent results in areas such as image processing, natural language processing, or speech recognition. Despite the statistically high accuracy of deep learning models, their output is often a decision of "black box". Thus, Interpretability methods have become a popular way to gain insight into the decision-making process of deep learning models. Explanation of a deep learning model is desirable in the medical domain since the experts have to justify their judgments to the patient. In this work, we proposed a method for explanation-guided training that uses a Layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) technique to force the model to focus only on the relevant part of the image. We experimentally verified our method on a convolutional neural network (CNN) model for low-grade and high-grade glioma classification problems. Our experiments show promising results in a way to use interpretation techniques in the model training process.

* 8 pages, 7 figures, submitted for review to the journal "Machine vision and applications" (in reviewing process) 

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Cross-lingual Text Classification with Heterogeneous Graph Neural Network

May 24, 2021
Ziyun Wang, Xuan Liu, Peiji Yang, Shixing Liu, Zhisheng Wang

Cross-lingual text classification aims at training a classifier on the source language and transferring the knowledge to target languages, which is very useful for low-resource languages. Recent multilingual pretrained language models (mPLM) achieve impressive results in cross-lingual classification tasks, but rarely consider factors beyond semantic similarity, causing performance degradation between some language pairs. In this paper we propose a simple yet effective method to incorporate heterogeneous information within and across languages for cross-lingual text classification using graph convolutional networks (GCN). In particular, we construct a heterogeneous graph by treating documents and words as nodes, and linking nodes with different relations, which include part-of-speech roles, semantic similarity, and document translations. Extensive experiments show that our graph-based method significantly outperforms state-of-the-art models on all tasks, and also achieves consistent performance gain over baselines in low-resource settings where external tools like translators are unavailable.

* Accepted by ACL 2021 (short paper) 

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