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"speech": models, code, and papers

Out-of-domain Generalization from a Single Source: A Uncertainty Quantification Approach

Aug 05, 2021
Xi Peng, Fengchun Qiao, Long Zhao

We study a worst-case scenario in generalization: Out-of-domain generalization from a single source. The goal is to learn a robust model from a single source and expect it to generalize over many unknown distributions. This challenging problem has been seldom investigated while existing solutions suffer from various limitations such as the ignorance of uncertainty assessment and label augmentation. In this paper, we propose uncertainty-guided domain generalization to tackle the aforementioned limitations. The key idea is to augment the source capacity in both feature and label spaces, while the augmentation is guided by uncertainty assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to (1) quantify the generalization uncertainty from a single source and (2) leverage it to guide both feature and label augmentation for robust generalization. The model training and deployment are effectively organized in a Bayesian meta-learning framework. We conduct extensive comparisons and ablation study to validate our approach. The results prove our superior performance in a wide scope of tasks including image classification, semantic segmentation, text classification, and speech recognition.

* 14 pages, 12 figures, submitted to IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (under review) 

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Semantic Distance: A New Metric for ASR Performance Analysis Towards Spoken Language Understanding

Apr 05, 2021
Suyoun Kim, Abhinav Arora, Duc Le, Ching-Feng Yeh, Christian Fuegen, Ozlem Kalinli, Michael L. Seltzer

Word Error Rate (WER) has been the predominant metric used to evaluate the performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems. However, WER is sometimes not a good indicator for downstream Natural Language Understanding (NLU) tasks, such as intent recognition, slot filling, and semantic parsing in task-oriented dialog systems. This is because WER takes into consideration only literal correctness instead of semantic correctness, the latter of which is typically more important for these downstream tasks. In this study, we propose a novel Semantic Distance (SemDist) measure as an alternative evaluation metric for ASR systems to address this issue. We define SemDist as the distance between a reference and hypothesis pair in a sentence-level embedding space. To represent the reference and hypothesis as a sentence embedding, we exploit RoBERTa, a state-of-the-art pre-trained deep contextualized language model based on the transformer architecture. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed metric on various downstream tasks, including intent recognition, semantic parsing, and named entity recognition.

* submitted to Interspeech 2021 

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Analysis of Dominant Classes in Universal Adversarial Perturbations

Jan 11, 2021
Jon Vadillo, Roberto Santana, Jose A. Lozano

The reasons why Deep Neural Networks are susceptible to being fooled by adversarial examples remains an open discussion. Indeed, many different strategies can be employed to efficiently generate adversarial attacks, some of them relying on different theoretical justifications. Among these strategies, universal (input-agnostic) perturbations are of particular interest, due to their capability to fool a network independently of the input in which the perturbation is applied. In this work, we investigate an intriguing phenomenon of universal perturbations, which has been reported previously in the literature, yet without a proven justification: universal perturbations change the predicted classes for most inputs into one particular (dominant) class, even if this behavior is not specified during the creation of the perturbation. In order to justify the cause of this phenomenon, we propose a number of hypotheses and experimentally test them using a speech command classification problem in the audio domain as a testbed. Our analyses reveal interesting properties of universal perturbations, suggest new methods to generate such attacks and provide an explanation of dominant classes, under both a geometric and a data-feature perspective.

* 20 pages, 10 figures, 4 tables 

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Incorporating Domain Knowledge To Improve Topic Segmentation Of Long MOOC Lecture Videos

Dec 08, 2020
Ananda Das, Partha Pratim Das

Topical Segmentation poses a great role in reducing search space of the topics taught in a lecture video specially when the video metadata lacks topic wise segmentation information. This segmentation information eases user efforts of searching, locating and browsing a topic inside a lecture video. In this work we propose an algorithm, that combines state-of-the art language model and domain knowledge graph for automatically detecting different coherent topics present inside a long lecture video. We use the language model on speech-to-text transcription to capture the implicit meaning of the whole video while the knowledge graph provides us the domain specific dependencies between different concepts of that subjects. Also leveraging the domain knowledge we can capture the way instructor binds and connects different concepts while teaching, which helps us in achieving better segmentation accuracy. We tested our approach on NPTEL lecture videos and holistic evaluation shows that it out performs the other methods described in the literature.

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The design and implementation of Language Learning Chatbot with XAI using Ontology and Transfer Learning

Sep 29, 2020
Nuobei Shi, Qin Zeng, Raymond Lee

In this paper, we proposed a transfer learning-based English language learning chatbot, whose output generated by GPT-2 can be explained by corresponding ontology graph rooted by fine-tuning dataset. We design three levels for systematically English learning, including phonetics level for speech recognition and pronunciation correction, semantic level for specific domain conversation, and the simulation of free-style conversation in English - the highest level of language chatbot communication as free-style conversation agent. For academic contribution, we implement the ontology graph to explain the performance of free-style conversation, following the concept of XAI (Explainable Artificial Intelligence) to visualize the connections of neural network in bionics, and explain the output sentence from language model. From implementation perspective, our Language Learning agent integrated the mini-program in WeChat as front-end, and fine-tuned GPT-2 model of transfer learning as back-end to interpret the responses by ontology graph.

* Dhinaharan Nagamalai et al. (Eds): CSEIT, WiMoNe, NCS, CIoT, CMLA, DMSE, NLPD - 2020 pp. 305-323, 2020. CS & IT - CSCP 2020 
* 19 pages, 20 figures, published paper in International Conference on NLP & Big Data (NLPD 2020) 

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Speaker Diarization as a Fully Online Learning Problem in MiniVox

Jun 08, 2020
Baihan Lin, Xinxin Zhang

We proposed a novel AI framework to conduct real-time multi-speaker diarization and recognition without prior registration and pretraining in a fully online learning setting. Our contributions are two-fold. First, we proposed a new benchmark to evaluate the rarely studied fully online speaker diarization problem. We built upon existing datasets of real world utterances to automatically curate MiniVox, an experimental environment which generates infinite configurations of continuous multi-speaker speech stream. Secondly, we considered the practical problem of online learning with episodically revealed rewards and introduced a solution based on semi-supervised and self-supervised learning methods. Lastly, we provided a workable web-based recognition system which interactively handles the cold start problem of new user's addition by transferring representations of old arms to new ones with an extendable contextual bandit. We demonstrated that our proposed method obtained robust performance in the online MiniVox framework.

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Wake Word Detection with Alignment-Free Lattice-Free MMI

May 25, 2020
Yiming Wang, Hang Lv, Daniel Povey, Lei Xie, Sanjeev Khudanpur

Always-on spoken language interfaces, e.g. personal digital assistants, rely on a wake word to start processing spoken input. We present novel methods to train a hybrid DNN/HMM wake word detection system from partially labeled training data, and to use it in on-line applications: (i) we remove the prerequisite of frame-level alignments in the LF-MMI training algorithm, permitting the use of un-transcribed training examples that are annotated only for the presence/absence of the wake word; (ii) we show that the classical keyword/filler model must be supplemented with an explicit non-speech (silence) model for good performance; (iii) we present an FST-based decoder to perform online detection. We evaluate our methods on two real data sets, showing 50%--90% reduction in false rejection rates at pre-specified false alarm rates over the best previously published figures, and re-validate them on a third (large) data set.

* Submitted to Interspeech 2020. 5 pages, 3 figures 

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Vector-Quantized Autoregressive Predictive Coding

May 17, 2020
Yu-An Chung, Hao Tang, James Glass

Autoregressive Predictive Coding (APC), as a self-supervised objective, has enjoyed success in learning representations from large amounts of unlabeled data, and the learned representations are rich for many downstream tasks. However, the connection between low self-supervised loss and strong performance in downstream tasks remains unclear. In this work, we propose Vector-Quantized Autoregressive Predictive Coding (VQ-APC), a novel model that produces quantized representations, allowing us to explicitly control the amount of information encoded in the representations. By studying a sequence of increasingly limited models, we reveal the constituents of the learned representations. In particular, we confirm the presence of information with probing tasks, while showing the absence of information with mutual information, uncovering the model's preference in preserving speech information as its capacity becomes constrained. We find that there exists a point where phonetic and speaker information are amplified to maximize a self-supervised objective. As a byproduct, the learned codes for a particular model capacity correspond well to English phones.

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