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"speech": models, code, and papers

SIG-VC: A Speaker Information Guided Zero-shot Voice Conversion System for Both Human Beings and Machines

Nov 06, 2021
Zhang Haozhe, Cai Zexin, Qin Xiaoyi, Li Ming

Nowadays, as more and more systems achieve good performance in traditional voice conversion (VC) tasks, people's attention gradually turns to VC tasks under extreme conditions. In this paper, we propose a novel method for zero-shot voice conversion. We aim to obtain intermediate representations for speaker-content disentanglement of speech to better remove speaker information and get pure content information. Accordingly, our proposed framework contains a module that removes the speaker information from the acoustic feature of the source speaker. Moreover, speaker information control is added to our system to maintain the voice cloning performance. The proposed system is evaluated by subjective and objective metrics. Results show that our proposed system significantly reduces the trade-off problem in zero-shot voice conversion, while it also manages to have high spoofing power to the speaker verification system.


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Contrastive prediction strategies for unsupervised segmentation and categorization of phonemes and words

Oct 29, 2021
Santiago Cuervo, Maciej Grabias, Jan Chorowski, Grzegorz Ciesielski, Adrian Łańcucki, Paweł Rychlikowski, Ricard Marxer

We investigate the performance on phoneme categorization and phoneme and word segmentation of several self-supervised learning (SSL) methods based on Contrastive Predictive Coding (CPC). Our experiments show that with the existing algorithms there is a trade off between categorization and segmentation performance. We investigate the source of this conflict and conclude that the use of context building networks, albeit necessary for superior performance on categorization tasks, harms segmentation performance by causing a temporal shift on the learned representations. Aiming to bridge this gap, we take inspiration from the leading approach on segmentation, which simultaneously models the speech signal at the frame and phoneme level, and incorporate multi-level modelling into Aligned CPC (ACPC), a variation of CPC which exhibits the best performance on categorization tasks. Our multi-level ACPC (mACPC) improves in all categorization metrics and achieves state-of-the-art performance in word segmentation.


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Efficient Sequence Training of Attention Models using Approximative Recombination

Oct 18, 2021
Nils-Philipp Wynands, Wilfried Michel, Jan Rosendahl, Ralf Schlüter, Hermann Ney

Sequence discriminative training is a great tool to improve the performance of an automatic speech recognition system. It does, however, necessitate a sum over all possible word sequences, which is intractable to compute in practice. Current state-of-the-art systems with unlimited label context circumvent this problem by limiting the summation to an n-best list of relevant competing hypotheses obtained from beam search. This work proposes to perform (approximative) recombinations of hypotheses during beam search, if they share a common local history. The error that is incurred by the approximation is analyzed and it is shown that using this technique the effective beam size can be increased by several orders of magnitude without significantly increasing the computational requirements. Lastly, it is shown that this technique can be used to effectively perform sequence discriminative training for attention-based encoder-decoder acoustic models on the LibriSpeech task.

* submitted to ICASSP 2022 

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Optimized Power Normalized Cepstral Coefficients towards Robust Deep Speaker Verification

Sep 24, 2021
Xuechen Liu, Md Sahidullah, Tomi Kinnunen

After their introduction to robust speech recognition, power normalized cepstral coefficient (PNCC) features were successfully adopted to other tasks, including speaker verification. However, as a feature extractor with long-term operations on the power spectrogram, its temporal processing and amplitude scaling steps dedicated on environmental compensation may be redundant. Further, they might suppress intrinsic speaker variations that are useful for speaker verification based on deep neural networks (DNN). Therefore, in this study, we revisit and optimize PNCCs by ablating its medium-time processor and by introducing channel energy normalization. Experimental results with a DNN-based speaker verification system indicate substantial improvement over baseline PNCCs on both in-domain and cross-domain scenarios, reflected by relatively 5.8% and 61.2% maximum lower equal error rate on VoxCeleb1 and VoxMovies, respectively.

* Accepted for publication at ASRU 2021 

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CAPE: Encoding Relative Positions with Continuous Augmented Positional Embeddings

Jun 06, 2021
Tatiana Likhomanenko, Qiantong Xu, Ronan Collobert, Gabriel Synnaeve, Alex Rogozhnikov

Without positional information, attention-based transformer neural networks are permutation-invariant. Absolute or relative positional embeddings are the most popular ways to feed transformer models positional information. Absolute positional embeddings are simple to implement, but suffer from generalization issues when evaluating on sequences of different length than those seen at training time. Relative positions are more robust to length change, but are more complex to implement and yield inferior model throughput. In this paper, we propose an augmentation-based approach (CAPE) for absolute positional embeddings, which keeps the advantages of both absolute (simplicity and speed) and relative position embeddings (better generalization). In addition, our empirical evaluation on state-of-the-art models in machine translation, image and speech recognition demonstrates that CAPE leads to better generalization performance as well as increased stability with respect to training hyper-parameters.


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Sentiment Classification in Swahili Language Using Multilingual BERT

Apr 19, 2021
Gati L. Martin, Medard E. Mswahili, Young-Seob Jeong

The evolution of the Internet has increased the amount of information that is expressed by people on different platforms. This information can be product reviews, discussions on forums, or social media platforms. Accessibility of these opinions and peoples feelings open the door to opinion mining and sentiment analysis. As language and speech technologies become more advanced, many languages have been used and the best models have been obtained. However, due to linguistic diversity and lack of datasets, African languages have been left behind. In this study, by using the current state-of-the-art model, multilingual BERT, we perform sentiment classification on Swahili datasets. The data was created by extracting and annotating 8.2k reviews and comments on different social media platforms and the ISEAR emotion dataset. The data were classified as either positive or negative. The model was fine-tuned and achieve the best accuracy of 87.59%.

* Accepted to African NLP Workshop, EACL 2021 (non-archival) 

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Child-directed Listening: How Caregiver Inference Enables Children's Early Verbal Communication

Feb 09, 2021
Stephan C. Meylan, Ruthe Foushee, Elika Bergelson, Roger P. Levy

How do adults understand children's speech? Children's productions over the course of language development often bear little resemblance to typical adult pronunciations, yet caregivers nonetheless reliably recover meaning from them. Here, we employ a suite of Bayesian models of spoken word recognition to understand how adults overcome the noisiness of child language, showing that communicative success between children and adults relies heavily on adult inferential processes. By evaluating competing models on phonetically-annotated corpora, we show that adults' recovered meanings are best predicted by prior expectations fitted specifically to the child language environment, rather than to typical adult-adult language. After quantifying the contribution of this "child-directed listening" over developmental time, we discuss the consequences for theories of language acquisition, as well as the implications for commonly-used methods for assessing children's linguistic proficiency.

* 13 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables. Edit #1 fixes formatting on table 1 (fitting it onto a single page) and reports correct contents for table 1 (previous version reported ants, not bits) 

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Mindless Attractor: A False-Positive Resistant Intervention for Drawing Attention Using Auditory Perturbation

Jan 21, 2021
Riku Arakawa, Hiromu Yakura

Explicitly alerting users is not always an optimal intervention, especially when they are not motivated to obey. For example, in video-based learning, learners who are distracted from the video would not follow an alert asking them to pay attention. Inspired by the concept of Mindless Computing, we propose a novel intervention approach, Mindless Attractor, that leverages the nature of human speech communication to help learners refocus their attention without relying on their motivation. Specifically, it perturbs the voice in the video to direct their attention without consuming their conscious awareness. Our experiments not only confirmed the validity of the proposed approach but also emphasized its advantages in combination with a machine learning-based sensing module. Namely, it would not frustrate users even though the intervention is activated by false-positive detection of their attentive state. Our intervention approach can be a reliable way to induce behavioral change in human-AI symbiosis.

* To appear in ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '21), May 8-13, 2021, Yokohama, Japan 

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A More Efficient Chinese Named Entity Recognition base on BERT and Syntactic Analysis

Jan 11, 2021
Xiao Fu, Guijun Zhang

We propose a new Named entity recognition (NER) method to effectively make use of the results of Part-of-speech (POS) tagging, Chinese word segmentation (CWS) and parsing while avoiding NER error caused by POS tagging error. This paper first uses Stanford natural language process (NLP) tool to annotate large-scale untagged data so as to reduce the dependence on the tagged data; then a new NLP model, g-BERT model, is designed to compress Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) model in order to reduce calculation quantity; finally, the model is evaluated based on Chinese NER dataset. The experimental results show that the calculation quantity in g-BERT model is reduced by 60% and performance improves by 2% with Test F1 to 96.5 compared with that in BERT model.

* 11pages,3figures,3tables 

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DAGA: Data Augmentation with a Generation Approach for Low-resource Tagging Tasks

Nov 03, 2020
Bosheng Ding, Linlin Liu, Lidong Bing, Canasai Kruengkrai, Thien Hai Nguyen, Shafiq Joty, Luo Si, Chunyan Miao

Data augmentation techniques have been widely used to improve machine learning performance as they enhance the generalization capability of models. In this work, to generate high quality synthetic data for low-resource tagging tasks, we propose a novel augmentation method with language models trained on the linearized labeled sentences. Our method is applicable to both supervised and semi-supervised settings. For the supervised settings, we conduct extensive experiments on named entity recognition (NER), part of speech (POS) tagging and end-to-end target based sentiment analysis (E2E-TBSA) tasks. For the semi-supervised settings, we evaluate our method on the NER task under the conditions of given unlabeled data only and unlabeled data plus a knowledge base. The results show that our method can consistently outperform the baselines, particularly when the given gold training data are less.

* Accepted by EMNLP 2020 

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