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"speech": models, code, and papers

openXBOW - Introducing the Passau Open-Source Crossmodal Bag-of-Words Toolkit

May 22, 2016
Maximilian Schmitt, Björn W. Schuller

We introduce openXBOW, an open-source toolkit for the generation of bag-of-words (BoW) representations from multimodal input. In the BoW principle, word histograms were first used as features in document classification, but the idea was and can easily be adapted to, e.g., acoustic or visual low-level descriptors, introducing a prior step of vector quantisation. The openXBOW toolkit supports arbitrary numeric input features and text input and concatenates computed subbags to a final bag. It provides a variety of extensions and options. To our knowledge, openXBOW is the first publicly available toolkit for the generation of crossmodal bags-of-words. The capabilities of the tool are exemplified in two sample scenarios: time-continuous speech-based emotion recognition and sentiment analysis in tweets where improved results over other feature representation forms were observed.

* 9 pages, 1 figure, pre-print 

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Noisy Parallel Approximate Decoding for Conditional Recurrent Language Model

May 12, 2016
Kyunghyun Cho

Recent advances in conditional recurrent language modelling have mainly focused on network architectures (e.g., attention mechanism), learning algorithms (e.g., scheduled sampling and sequence-level training) and novel applications (e.g., image/video description generation, speech recognition, etc.) On the other hand, we notice that decoding algorithms/strategies have not been investigated as much, and it has become standard to use greedy or beam search. In this paper, we propose a novel decoding strategy motivated by an earlier observation that nonlinear hidden layers of a deep neural network stretch the data manifold. The proposed strategy is embarrassingly parallelizable without any communication overhead, while improving an existing decoding algorithm. We extensively evaluate it with attention-based neural machine translation on the task of En->Cz translation.

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Multilingual Language Processing From Bytes

Apr 02, 2016
Dan Gillick, Cliff Brunk, Oriol Vinyals, Amarnag Subramanya

We describe an LSTM-based model which we call Byte-to-Span (BTS) that reads text as bytes and outputs span annotations of the form [start, length, label] where start positions, lengths, and labels are separate entries in our vocabulary. Because we operate directly on unicode bytes rather than language-specific words or characters, we can analyze text in many languages with a single model. Due to the small vocabulary size, these multilingual models are very compact, but produce results similar to or better than the state-of- the-art in Part-of-Speech tagging and Named Entity Recognition that use only the provided training datasets (no external data sources). Our models are learning "from scratch" in that they do not rely on any elements of the standard pipeline in Natural Language Processing (including tokenization), and thus can run in standalone fashion on raw text.

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Time Series Classification using the Hidden-Unit Logistic Model

Jan 19, 2016
Wenjie Pei, Hamdi Dibeklioğlu, David M. J. Tax, Laurens van der Maaten

We present a new model for time series classification, called the hidden-unit logistic model, that uses binary stochastic hidden units to model latent structure in the data. The hidden units are connected in a chain structure that models temporal dependencies in the data. Compared to the prior models for time series classification such as the hidden conditional random field, our model can model very complex decision boundaries because the number of latent states grows exponentially with the number of hidden units. We demonstrate the strong performance of our model in experiments on a variety of (computer vision) tasks, including handwritten character recognition, speech recognition, facial expression, and action recognition. We also present a state-of-the-art system for facial action unit detection based on the hidden-unit logistic model.

* 17 pages, 4 figures, 3 tables 

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Conditional Random Field Autoencoders for Unsupervised Structured Prediction

Nov 10, 2014
Waleed Ammar, Chris Dyer, Noah A. Smith

We introduce a framework for unsupervised learning of structured predictors with overlapping, global features. Each input's latent representation is predicted conditional on the observable data using a feature-rich conditional random field. Then a reconstruction of the input is (re)generated, conditional on the latent structure, using models for which maximum likelihood estimation has a closed-form. Our autoencoder formulation enables efficient learning without making unrealistic independence assumptions or restricting the kinds of features that can be used. We illustrate insightful connections to traditional autoencoders, posterior regularization and multi-view learning. We show competitive results with instantiations of the model for two canonical NLP tasks: part-of-speech induction and bitext word alignment, and show that training our model can be substantially more efficient than comparable feature-rich baselines.

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Parsing of Myanmar sentences with function tagging

May 08, 2012
Win Win Thant, Tin Myat Htwe, Ni Lar Thein

This paper describes the use of Naive Bayes to address the task of assigning function tags and context free grammar (CFG) to parse Myanmar sentences. Part of the challenge of statistical function tagging for Myanmar sentences comes from the fact that Myanmar has free-phrase-order and a complex morphological system. Function tagging is a pre-processing step for parsing. In the task of function tagging, we use the functional annotated corpus and tag Myanmar sentences with correct segmentation, POS (part-of-speech) tagging and chunking information. We propose Myanmar grammar rules and apply context free grammar (CFG) to find out the parse tree of function tagged Myanmar sentences. Experiments show that our analysis achieves a good result with parsing of simple sentences and three types of complex sentences.

* 18 pages, 8 figures, 10 tables. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1203.1685, and with arXiv:0912.1820 by other authors without attribution 

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Learning to automatically detect features for mobile robots using second-order Hidden Markov Models

Jan 24, 2005
Olivier Aycard, Jean-Francois Mari, Richard Washington

In this paper, we propose a new method based on Hidden Markov Models to interpret temporal sequences of sensor data from mobile robots to automatically detect features. Hidden Markov Models have been used for a long time in pattern recognition, especially in speech recognition. Their main advantages over other methods (such as neural networks) are their ability to model noisy temporal signals of variable length. We show in this paper that this approach is well suited for interpretation of temporal sequences of mobile-robot sensor data. We present two distinct experiments and results: the first one in an indoor environment where a mobile robot learns to detect features like open doors or T-intersections, the second one in an outdoor environment where a different mobile robot has to identify situations like climbing a hill or crossing a rock.

* 2004 

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The intersection of Finite State Automata and Definite Clause Grammars

Apr 28, 1995
Gertjan van Noord

Bernard Lang defines parsing as the calculation of the intersection of a FSA (the input) and a CFG. Viewing the input for parsing as a FSA rather than as a string combines well with some approaches in speech understanding systems, in which parsing takes a word lattice as input (rather than a word string). Furthermore, certain techniques for robust parsing can be modelled as finite state transducers. In this paper we investigate how we can generalize this approach for unification grammars. In particular we will concentrate on how we might the calculation of the intersection of a FSA and a DCG. It is shown that existing parsing algorithms can be easily extended for FSA inputs. However, we also show that the termination properties change drastically: we show that it is undecidable whether the intersection of a FSA and a DCG is empty (even if the DCG is off-line parsable). Furthermore we discuss approaches to cope with the problem.

* Proceedings of the 33rd ACL. Boston 1995. 
* 7 pages. Requires pictexwd package. To appear in ACL 95 

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End-to-End Multi-speaker ASR with Independent Vector Analysis

Apr 01, 2022
Robin Scheibler, Wangyou Zhang, Xuankai Chang, Shinji Watanabe, Yanmin Qian

We develop an end-to-end system for multi-channel, multi-speaker automatic speech recognition. We propose a frontend for joint source separation and dereverberation based on the independent vector analysis (IVA) paradigm. It uses the fast and stable iterative source steering algorithm together with a neural source model. The parameters from the ASR module and the neural source model are optimized jointly from the ASR loss itself. We demonstrate competitive performance with previous systems using neural beamforming frontends. First, we explore the trade-offs when using various number of channels for training and testing. Second, we demonstrate that the proposed IVA frontend performs well on noisy data, even when trained on clean mixtures only. Furthermore, it extends without retraining to the separation of more speakers, which is demonstrated on mixtures of three and four speakers.

* Submitted to INTERSPEECH2022. 5 pages, 2 figures, 3 tables 

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Morphological Analysis of Japanese Hiragana Sentences using the BI-LSTM CRF Model

Jan 10, 2022
Jun Izutsu, Kanako Komiya

This study proposes a method to develop neural models of the morphological analyzer for Japanese Hiragana sentences using the Bi-LSTM CRF model. Morphological analysis is a technique that divides text data into words and assigns information such as parts of speech. This technique plays an essential role in downstream applications in Japanese natural language processing systems because the Japanese language does not have word delimiters between words. Hiragana is a type of Japanese phonogramic characters, which is used for texts for children or people who cannot read Chinese characters. Morphological analysis of Hiragana sentences is more difficult than that of ordinary Japanese sentences because there is less information for dividing. For morphological analysis of Hiragana sentences, we demonstrated the effectiveness of fine-tuning using a model based on ordinary Japanese text and examined the influence of training data on texts of various genres.

* 13 pages 

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