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"speech": models, code, and papers

Comparative Studies of Detecting Abusive Language on Twitter

Aug 30, 2018
Younghun Lee, Seunghyun Yoon, Kyomin Jung

The context-dependent nature of online aggression makes annotating large collections of data extremely difficult. Previously studied datasets in abusive language detection have been insufficient in size to efficiently train deep learning models. Recently, Hate and Abusive Speech on Twitter, a dataset much greater in size and reliability, has been released. However, this dataset has not been comprehensively studied to its potential. In this paper, we conduct the first comparative study of various learning models on Hate and Abusive Speech on Twitter, and discuss the possibility of using additional features and context data for improvements. Experimental results show that bidirectional GRU networks trained on word-level features, with Latent Topic Clustering modules, is the most accurate model scoring 0.805 F1.

* ALW2: 2nd Workshop on Abusive Language Online to be held at EMNLP 2018 (Brussels, Belgium), October 31st, 2018 

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Massively Multilingual Neural Grapheme-to-Phoneme Conversion

Aug 04, 2017
Ben Peters, Jon Dehdari, Josef van Genabith

Grapheme-to-phoneme conversion (g2p) is necessary for text-to-speech and automatic speech recognition systems. Most g2p systems are monolingual: they require language-specific data or handcrafting of rules. Such systems are difficult to extend to low resource languages, for which data and handcrafted rules are not available. As an alternative, we present a neural sequence-to-sequence approach to g2p which is trained on spelling--pronunciation pairs in hundreds of languages. The system shares a single encoder and decoder across all languages, allowing it to utilize the intrinsic similarities between different writing systems. We show an 11% improvement in phoneme error rate over an approach based on adapting high-resource monolingual g2p models to low-resource languages. Our model is also much more compact relative to previous approaches.

* EMNLP 2017 Workshop on Building Linguisically Generalizable NLP Systems 

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Decoding with Finite-State Transducers on GPUs

Jan 17, 2017
Arturo Argueta, David Chiang

Weighted finite automata and transducers (including hidden Markov models and conditional random fields) are widely used in natural language processing (NLP) to perform tasks such as morphological analysis, part-of-speech tagging, chunking, named entity recognition, speech recognition, and others. Parallelizing finite state algorithms on graphics processing units (GPUs) would benefit many areas of NLP. Although researchers have implemented GPU versions of basic graph algorithms, limited previous work, to our knowledge, has been done on GPU algorithms for weighted finite automata. We introduce a GPU implementation of the Viterbi and forward-backward algorithm, achieving decoding speedups of up to 5.2x over our serial implementation running on different computer architectures and 6093x over OpenFST.

* accepted at EACL 2017 

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Emotional Intensity analysis in Bipolar subjects

Jun 07, 2016
Facundo Carrillo, Natalia Mota, Mauro Copelli, Sidarta Ribeiro, Mariano Sigman, Guillermo Cecchi, Diego Fernandez Slezak

The massive availability of digital repositories of human thought opens radical novel way of studying the human mind. Natural language processing tools and computational models have evolved such that many mental conditions are predicted by analysing speech. Transcription of interviews and discourses are analyzed using syntactic, grammatical or sentiment analysis to infer the mental state. Here we set to investigate if classification of Bipolar and control subjects is possible. We develop the Emotion Intensity Index based on the Dictionary of Affect, and find that subjects categories are distinguishable. Using classical classification techniques we get more than 75\% of labeling performance. These results sumed to previous studies show that current automated speech analysis is capable of identifying altered mental states towards a quantitative psychiatry.

* Presented at MLINI-2015 workshop, 2015 (arXiv:cs/0101200) 

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SpecGrad: Diffusion Probabilistic Model based Neural Vocoder with Adaptive Noise Spectral Shaping

Mar 31, 2022
Yuma Koizumi, Heiga Zen, Kohei Yatabe, Nanxin Chen, Michiel Bacchiani

Neural vocoder using denoising diffusion probabilistic model (DDPM) has been improved by adaptation of the diffusion noise distribution to given acoustic features. In this study, we propose SpecGrad that adapts the diffusion noise so that its time-varying spectral envelope becomes close to the conditioning log-mel spectrogram. This adaptation by time-varying filtering improves the sound quality especially in the high-frequency bands. It is processed in the time-frequency domain to keep the computational cost almost the same as the conventional DDPM-based neural vocoders. Experimental results showed that SpecGrad generates higher-fidelity speech waveform than conventional DDPM-based neural vocoders in both analysis-synthesis and speech enhancement scenarios. Audio demos are available at wavegrad.github.io/specgrad/.

* Submitted to Interspeech 2022 

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How Hateful are Movies? A Study and Prediction on Movie Subtitles

Aug 19, 2021
Niklas von Boguszewski, Sana Moin, Anirban Bhowmick, Seid Muhie Yimam, Chris Biemann

In this research, we investigate techniques to detect hate speech in movies. We introduce a new dataset collected from the subtitles of six movies, where each utterance is annotated either as hate, offensive or normal. We apply transfer learning techniques of domain adaptation and fine-tuning on existing social media datasets, namely from Twitter and Fox News. We evaluate different representations, i.e., Bag of Words (BoW), Bi-directional Long short-term memory (Bi-LSTM), and Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) on 11k movie subtitles. The BERT model obtained the best macro-averaged F1-score of 77%. Hence, we show that transfer learning from the social media domain is efficacious in classifying hate and offensive speech in movies through subtitles.


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Distilling the Knowledge from Normalizing Flows

Jun 24, 2021
Dmitry Baranchuk, Vladimir Aliev, Artem Babenko

Normalizing flows are a powerful class of generative models demonstrating strong performance in several speech and vision problems. In contrast to other generative models, normalizing flows have tractable likelihoods and allow for stable training. However, they have to be carefully designed to represent invertible functions with efficient Jacobian determinant calculation. In practice, these requirements lead to overparameterized and sophisticated architectures that are inferior to alternative feed-forward models in terms of inference time and memory consumption. In this work, we investigate whether one can distill knowledge from flow-based models to more efficient alternatives. We provide a positive answer to this question by proposing a simple distillation approach and demonstrating its effectiveness on state-of-the-art conditional flow-based models for image super-resolution and speech synthesis.

* ICML'2021 Workshop: INNF+2021 (Spotlight) 

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Challenges and Considerations with Code-Mixed NLP for Multilingual Societies

Jun 15, 2021
Vivek Srivastava, Mayank Singh

Multilingualism refers to the high degree of proficiency in two or more languages in the written and oral communication modes. It often results in language mixing, a.k.a. code-mixing, when a multilingual speaker switches between multiple languages in a single utterance of a text or speech. This paper discusses the current state of the NLP research, limitations, and foreseeable pitfalls in addressing five real-world applications for social good crisis management, healthcare, political campaigning, fake news, and hate speech for multilingual societies. We also propose futuristic datasets, models, and tools that can significantly advance the current research in multilingual NLP applications for the societal good. As a representative example, we consider English-Hindi code-mixing but draw similar inferences for other language pairs


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Unsupervised Cross-Domain Singing Voice Conversion

Aug 06, 2020
Adam Polyak, Lior Wolf, Yossi Adi, Yaniv Taigman

We present a wav-to-wav generative model for the task of singing voice conversion from any identity. Our method utilizes both an acoustic model, trained for the task of automatic speech recognition, together with melody extracted features to drive a waveform-based generator. The proposed generative architecture is invariant to the speaker's identity and can be trained to generate target singers from unlabeled training data, using either speech or singing sources. The model is optimized in an end-to-end fashion without any manual supervision, such as lyrics, musical notes or parallel samples. The proposed approach is fully-convolutional and can generate audio in real-time. Experiments show that our method significantly outperforms the baseline methods while generating convincingly better audio samples than alternative attempts.


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Automatic Generation of High Quality CCGbanks for Parser Domain Adaptation

Jun 05, 2019
Masashi Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Noji, Koji Mineshima, Daisuke Bekki

We propose a new domain adaptation method for Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) parsing, based on the idea of automatic generation of CCG corpora exploiting cheaper resources of dependency trees. Our solution is conceptually simple, and not relying on a specific parser architecture, making it applicable to the current best-performing parsers. We conduct extensive parsing experiments with detailed discussion; on top of existing benchmark datasets on (1) biomedical texts and (2) question sentences, we create experimental datasets of (3) speech conversation and (4) math problems. When applied to the proposed method, an off-the-shelf CCG parser shows significant performance gains, improving from 90.7% to 96.6% on speech conversation, and from 88.5% to 96.8% on math problems.

* 11 pages, accepted as long paper to ACL 2019 Italy 

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