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"speech": models, code, and papers

Speech Synthesis from Text and Ultrasound Tongue Image-based Articulatory Input

Jul 05, 2021
Tamás Gábor Csapó, László Tóth, Gábor Gosztolya, Alexandra Markó

Articulatory information has been shown to be effective in improving the performance of HMM-based and DNN-based text-to-speech synthesis. Speech synthesis research focuses traditionally on text-to-speech conversion, when the input is text or an estimated linguistic representation, and the target is synthesized speech. However, a research field that has risen in the last decade is articulation-to-speech synthesis (with a target application of a Silent Speech Interface, SSI), when the goal is to synthesize speech from some representation of the movement of the articulatory organs. In this paper, we extend traditional (vocoder-based) DNN-TTS with articulatory input, estimated from ultrasound tongue images. We compare text-only, ultrasound-only, and combined inputs. Using data from eight speakers, we show that that the combined text and articulatory input can have advantages in limited-data scenarios, namely, it may increase the naturalness of synthesized speech compared to single text input. Besides, we analyze the ultrasound tongue recordings of several speakers, and show that misalignments in the ultrasound transducer positioning can have a negative effect on the final synthesis performance.

* accepted at SSW11 (11th Speech Synthesis Workshop) 

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A Benchmark Dataset for Learning to Intervene in Online Hate Speech

Sep 10, 2019
Jing Qian, Anna Bethke, Yinyin Liu, Elizabeth Belding, William Yang Wang

Countering online hate speech is a critical yet challenging task, but one which can be aided by the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. Previous research has primarily focused on the development of NLP methods to automatically and effectively detect online hate speech while disregarding further action needed to calm and discourage individuals from using hate speech in the future. In addition, most existing hate speech datasets treat each post as an isolated instance, ignoring the conversational context. In this paper, we propose a novel task of generative hate speech intervention, where the goal is to automatically generate responses to intervene during online conversations that contain hate speech. As a part of this work, we introduce two fully-labeled large-scale hate speech intervention datasets collected from Gab and Reddit. These datasets provide conversation segments, hate speech labels, as well as intervention responses written by Mechanical Turk Workers. In this paper, we also analyze the datasets to understand the common intervention strategies and explore the performance of common automatic response generation methods on these new datasets to provide a benchmark for future research.


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CORAA: a large corpus of spontaneous and prepared speech manually validated for speech recognition in Brazilian Portuguese

Oct 14, 2021
Arnaldo Candido Junior, Edresson Casanova, Anderson Soares, Frederico Santos de Oliveira, Lucas Oliveira, Ricardo Corso Fernandes Junior, Daniel Peixoto Pinto da Silva, Fernando Gorgulho Fayet, Bruno Baldissera Carlotto, Lucas Rafael Stefanel Gris, Sandra Maria Aluísio

Automatic Speech recognition (ASR) is a complex and challenging task. In recent years, there have been significant advances in the area. In particular, for the Brazilian Portuguese (BP) language, there were about 376 hours public available for ASR task until the second half of 2020. With the release of new datasets in early 2021, this number increased to 574 hours. The existing resources, however, are composed of audios containing only read and prepared speech. There is a lack of datasets including spontaneous speech, which are essential in different ASR applications. This paper presents CORAA (Corpus of Annotated Audios) v1. with 291 hours, a publicly available dataset for ASR in BP containing validated pairs (audio-transcription). CORAA also contains European Portuguese audios (4.69 hours). We also present two public ASR models based on Wav2Vec 2.0 XLSR-53 and fine-tuned over CORAA. Our best model achieved a Word Error Rate of 27.35% on CORAA test set and 16.01% on Common Voice test set. When measuring the Character Error Rate, we obtained 14.26% and 5.45% for CORAA and Common Voice, respectively. CORAA corpora were assembled to both improve ASR models in BP with phenomena from spontaneous speech and motivate young researchers to start their studies on ASR for Portuguese. All the corpora are publicly available at https://github.com/nilc-nlp/CORAA under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.

* This paper is under consideration at Language Resources and Evaluation (LREV) 

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Brain Signals to Rescue Aphasia, Apraxia and Dysarthria Speech Recognition

Feb 28, 2021
Gautam Krishna, Mason Carnahan, Shilpa Shamapant, Yashitha Surendranath, Saumya Jain, Arundhati Ghosh, Co Tran, Jose del R Millan, Ahmed H Tewfik

In this paper, we propose a deep learning-based algorithm to improve the performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems for aphasia, apraxia, and dysarthria speech by utilizing electroencephalography (EEG) features recorded synchronously with aphasia, apraxia, and dysarthria speech. We demonstrate a significant decoding performance improvement by more than 50\% during test time for isolated speech recognition task and we also provide preliminary results indicating performance improvement for the more challenging continuous speech recognition task by utilizing EEG features. The results presented in this paper show the first step towards demonstrating the possibility of utilizing non-invasive neural signals to design a real-time robust speech prosthetic for stroke survivors recovering from aphasia, apraxia, and dysarthria. Our aphasia, apraxia, and dysarthria speech-EEG data set will be released to the public to help further advance this interesting and crucial research.

* Pre-print. In preparation for submission to Journal/Conference 

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RyanSpeech: A Corpus for Conversational Text-to-Speech Synthesis

Jun 15, 2021
Rohola Zandie, Mohammad H. Mahoor, Julia Madsen, Eshrat S. Emamian

This paper introduces RyanSpeech, a new speech corpus for research on automated text-to-speech (TTS) systems. Publicly available TTS corpora are often noisy, recorded with multiple speakers, or lack quality male speech data. In order to meet the need for a high quality, publicly available male speech corpus within the field of speech recognition, we have designed and created RyanSpeech which contains textual materials from real-world conversational settings. These materials contain over 10 hours of a professional male voice actor's speech recorded at 44.1 kHz. This corpus's design and pipeline make RyanSpeech ideal for developing TTS systems in real-world applications. To provide a baseline for future research, protocols, and benchmarks, we trained 4 state-of-the-art speech models and a vocoder on RyanSpeech. The results show 3.36 in mean opinion scores (MOS) in our best model. We have made both the corpus and trained models for public use.


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Articulatory Features for ASR of Pathological Speech

Jul 28, 2018
Emre Yılmaz, Vikramjit Mitra, Chris Bartels, Horacio Franco

In this work, we investigate the joint use of articulatory and acoustic features for automatic speech recognition (ASR) of pathological speech. Despite long-lasting efforts to build speaker- and text-independent ASR systems for people with dysarthria, the performance of state-of-the-art systems is still considerably lower on this type of speech than on normal speech. The most prominent reason for the inferior performance is the high variability in pathological speech that is characterized by the spectrotemporal deviations caused by articulatory impairments due to various etiologies. To cope with this high variation, we propose to use speech representations which utilize articulatory information together with the acoustic properties. A designated acoustic model, namely a fused-feature-map convolutional neural network (fCNN), which performs frequency convolution on acoustic features and time convolution on articulatory features is trained and tested on a Dutch and a Flemish pathological speech corpus. The ASR performance of fCNN-based ASR system using joint features is compared to other neural network architectures such conventional CNNs and time-frequency convolutional networks (TFCNNs) in several training scenarios.

* Accepted for publication at Interspeech 2018 

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Multilingual Bottleneck Features for Improving ASR Performance of Code-Switched Speech in Under-Resourced Languages

Oct 31, 2020
Trideba Padhi, Astik Biswas, Febe De Wet, Ewald van der Westhuizen, Thomas Niesler

In this work, we explore the benefits of using multilingual bottleneck features (mBNF) in acoustic modelling for the automatic speech recognition of code-switched (CS) speech in African languages. The unavailability of annotated corpora in the languages of interest has always been a primary challenge when developing speech recognition systems for this severely under-resourced type of speech. Hence, it is worthwhile to investigate the potential of using speech corpora available for other better-resourced languages to improve speech recognition performance. To achieve this, we train a mBNF extractor using nine Southern Bantu languages that form part of the freely available multilingual NCHLT corpus. We append these mBNFs to the existing MFCCs, pitch features and i-vectors to train acoustic models for automatic speech recognition (ASR) in the target code-switched languages. Our results show that the inclusion of the mBNF features leads to clear performance improvements over a baseline trained without the mBNFs for code-switched English-isiZulu, English-isiXhosa, English-Sesotho and English-Setswana speech.

* http://festvox.org/cedar/WSTCSMC2020.pdf 
* In Proceedings of The First Workshop on Speech Technologies for Code-Switching in Multilingual Communities 

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A Comparison of Discrete and Soft Speech Units for Improved Voice Conversion

Nov 03, 2021
Benjamin van Niekerk, Marc-André Carbonneau, Julian Zaïdi, Mathew Baas, Hugo Seuté, Herman Kamper

The goal of voice conversion is to transform source speech into a target voice, keeping the content unchanged. In this paper, we focus on self-supervised representation learning for voice conversion. Specifically, we compare discrete and soft speech units as input features. We find that discrete representations effectively remove speaker information but discard some linguistic content - leading to mispronunciations. As a solution, we propose soft speech units. To learn soft units, we predict a distribution over discrete speech units. By modeling uncertainty, soft units capture more content information, improving the intelligibility and naturalness of converted speech. Samples available at https://ubisoft-laforge.github.io/speech/soft-vc/

* 5 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables. Submitted to ICASSP 2022 

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Injecting Text in Self-Supervised Speech Pretraining

Aug 27, 2021
Zhehuai Chen, Yu Zhang, Andrew Rosenberg, Bhuvana Ramabhadran, Gary Wang, Pedro Moreno

Self-supervised pretraining for Automated Speech Recognition (ASR) has shown varied degrees of success. In this paper, we propose to jointly learn representations during pretraining from two different modalities: speech and text. The proposed method, tts4pretrain complements the power of contrastive learning in self-supervision with linguistic/lexical representations derived from synthesized speech, effectively learning from untranscribed speech and unspoken text. Lexical learning in the speech encoder is enforced through an additional sequence loss term that is coupled with contrastive loss during pretraining. We demonstrate that this novel pretraining method yields Word Error Rate (WER) reductions of 10% relative on the well-benchmarked, Librispeech task over a state-of-the-art baseline pretrained with wav2vec2.0 only. The proposed method also serves as an effective strategy to compensate for the lack of transcribed speech, effectively matching the performance of 5000 hours of transcribed speech with just 100 hours of transcribed speech on the AMI meeting transcription task. Finally, we demonstrate WER reductions of up to 15% on an in-house Voice Search task over traditional pretraining. Incorporating text into encoder pretraining is complimentary to rescoring with a larger or in-domain language model, resulting in additional 6% relative reduction in WER.

* submit to ASRU 2021 

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Glow-WaveGAN: Learning Speech Representations from GAN-based Variational Auto-Encoder For High Fidelity Flow-based Speech Synthesis

Jun 22, 2021
Jian Cong, Shan Yang, Lei Xie, Dan Su

Current two-stage TTS framework typically integrates an acoustic model with a vocoder -- the acoustic model predicts a low resolution intermediate representation such as Mel-spectrum while the vocoder generates waveform from the intermediate representation. Although the intermediate representation is served as a bridge, there still exists critical mismatch between the acoustic model and the vocoder as they are commonly separately learned and work on different distributions of representation, leading to inevitable artifacts in the synthesized speech. In this work, different from using pre-designed intermediate representation in most previous studies, we propose to use VAE combining with GAN to learn a latent representation directly from speech and then utilize a flow-based acoustic model to model the distribution of the latent representation from text. In this way, the mismatch problem is migrated as the two stages work on the same distribution. Results demonstrate that the flow-based acoustic model can exactly model the distribution of our learned speech representation and the proposed TTS framework, namely Glow-WaveGAN, can produce high fidelity speech outperforming the state-of-the-art GAN-based model.

* Accepted to INTERSPEECH 2021 

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