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"speech": models, code, and papers

Using generative modelling to produce varied intonation for speech synthesis

Jun 10, 2019
Zack Hodari, Oliver Watts, Simon King

Unlike human speakers, typical text-to-speech (TTS) systems are unable to produce multiple distinct renditions of a given sentence. This has previously been addressed by adding explicit external control. In contrast, generative models are able to capture a distribution over multiple renditions and thus produce varied renditions using sampling. Typical neural TTS models learn the average of the data because they minimise mean squared error. In the context of prosody, taking the average produces flatter, more boring speech: an "average prosody". A generative model that can synthesise multiple prosodies will, by design, not model average prosody. We use variational autoencoders (VAE) which explicitly place the most "average" data close to the mean of the Gaussian prior. We propose that by moving towards the tails of the prior distribution, the model will transition towards generating more idiosyncratic, varied renditions. Focusing here on intonation, we investigate the trade-off between naturalness and intonation variation and find that typical acoustic models can either be natural, or varied, but not both. However, sampling from the tails of the VAE prior produces much more varied intonation than the traditional approaches, whilst maintaining the same level of naturalness.

* Submitted to the 10th ISCA Speech Synthesis Workshop (SSW10) 

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Look\&Listen: Multi-Modal Correlation Learning for Active Speaker Detection and Speech Enhancement

Mar 04, 2022
Junwen Xiong, Yu Zhou, Peng Zhang, Lei Xie, Wei Huang, Yufei Zha

Active speaker detection and speech enhancement have become two increasingly attractive topics in audio-visual scenario understanding. According to their respective characteristics, the scheme of independently designed architecture has been widely used in correspondence to each single task. This may lead to the learned feature representation being task-specific, and inevitably result in the lack of generalization ability of the feature based on multi-modal modeling. More recent studies have shown that establishing cross-modal relationship between auditory and visual stream is a promising solution for the challenge of audio-visual multi-task learning. Therefore, as a motivation to bridge the multi-modal cross-attention, in this work, a unified framework ADENet is proposed to achieve target speaker detection and speech enhancement with joint learning of audio-visual modeling.

* 10 pages, 5figures 

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Self-Supervised Representation Learning for Speech Using Visual Grounding and Masked Language Modeling

Feb 07, 2022
Puyuan Peng, David Harwath

In this paper, we describe our submissions to the ZeroSpeech 2021 Challenge and SUPERB benchmark. Our submissions are based on the recently proposed FaST-VGS model, which is a Transformer-based model that learns to associate raw speech waveforms with semantically related images, all without the use of any transcriptions of the speech. Additionally, we introduce a novel extension of this model, FaST-VGS+, which is learned in a multi-task fashion with a masked language modeling objective in addition to the visual grounding objective. On ZeroSpeech 2021, we show that our models perform competitively on the ABX task, outperform all other concurrent submissions on the Syntactic and Semantic tasks, and nearly match the best system on the Lexical task. On the SUPERB benchmark, we show that our models also achieve strong performance, in some cases even outperforming the popular wav2vec2.0 model.

* SAS workshop at AAAI2022 

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DCCRGAN: Deep Complex Convolution Recurrent Generator Adversarial Network for Speech Enhancement

Dec 19, 2020
Huixiang Huang, Renjie Wu, Jingbiao Huang, Jucai Lin

Generative adversarial network (GAN) still exists some problems in dealing with speech enhancement (SE) task. Some GAN-based systems adopt the same structure from Pixel-to-Pixel directly without special optimization. The importance of the generator network has not been fully explored. Other related researches change the generator network but operate in the time-frequency domain, which ignores the phase mismatch problem. In order to solve these problems, a deep complex convolution recurrent GAN (DCCRGAN) structure is proposed in this paper. The complex module builds the correlation between magnitude and phase of the waveform and has been proved to be effective. The proposed structure is trained in an end-to-end way. Different LSTM layers are used in the generator network to sufficiently explore the speech enhancement performance of DCCRGAN. The experimental results confirm that the proposed DCCRGAN outperforms the state-of-the-art GAN-based SE systems.

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A breakthrough in Speech emotion recognition using Deep Retinal Convolution Neural Networks

Jul 12, 2017
Yafeng Niu, Dongsheng Zou, Yadong Niu, Zhongshi He, Hua Tan

Speech emotion recognition (SER) is to study the formation and change of speaker's emotional state from the speech signal perspective, so as to make the interaction between human and computer more intelligent. SER is a challenging task that has encountered the problem of less training data and low prediction accuracy. Here we propose a data augmentation algorithm based on the imaging principle of the retina and convex lens, to acquire the different sizes of spectrogram and increase the amount of training data by changing the distance between the spectrogram and the convex lens. Meanwhile, with the help of deep learning to get the high-level features, we propose the Deep Retinal Convolution Neural Networks (DRCNNs) for SER and achieve the average accuracy over 99%. The experimental results indicate that DRCNNs outperforms the previous studies in terms of both the number of emotions and the accuracy of recognition. Predictably, our results will dramatically improve human-computer interaction.

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Deep Spiking Neural Networks for Large Vocabulary Automatic Speech Recognition

Nov 19, 2019
Jibin Wu, Emre Yilmaz, Malu Zhang, Haizhou Li, Kay Chen Tan

Artificial neural networks (ANN) have become the mainstream acoustic modeling technique for large vocabulary automatic speech recognition (ASR). A conventional ANN features a multi-layer architecture that requires massive amounts of computation. The brain-inspired spiking neural networks (SNN) closely mimic the biological neural networks and can operate on low-power neuromorphic hardware with spike-based computation. Motivated by their unprecedented energyefficiency and rapid information processing capability, we explore the use of SNNs for speech recognition. In this work, we use SNNs for acoustic modeling and evaluate their performance on several large vocabulary recognition scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate competitive ASR accuracies to their ANN counterparts, while require significantly reduced computational cost and inference time. Integrating the algorithmic power of deep SNNs with energy-efficient neuromorphic hardware, therefore, offer an attractive solution for ASR applications running locally on mobile and embedded devices.

* Submitted to Frontier of Neuroscience 

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MetricGAN: Generative Adversarial Networks based Black-box Metric Scores Optimization for Speech Enhancement

May 13, 2019
Szu-Wei Fu, Chien-Feng Liao, Yu Tsao, Shou-De Lin

Adversarial loss in a conditional generative adversarial network (GAN) is not designed to directly optimize evaluation metrics of a target task, and thus, may not always guide the generator in a GAN to generate data with improved metric scores. To overcome this issue, we propose a novel MetricGAN approach with an aim to optimize the generator with respect to one or multiple evaluation metrics. Moreover, based on MetricGAN, the metric scores of the generated data can also be arbitrarily specified by users. We tested the proposed MetricGAN on a speech enhancement task, which is particularly suitable to verify the proposed approach because there are multiple metrics measuring different aspects of speech signals. Moreover, these metrics are generally complex and could not be fully optimized by Lp or conventional adversarial losses.

* Accepted by Thirty-sixth International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML) 2019 

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A Study of Low-Resource Speech Commands Recognition based on Adversarial Reprogramming

Oct 08, 2021
Hao Yen, Pin-Jui Ku, Chao-Han Huck Yang, Hu Hu, Sabato Marco Siniscalchi, Pin-Yu Chen, Yu Tsao

In this study, we propose a novel adversarial reprogramming (AR) approach for low-resource spoken command recognition (SCR), and build an AR-SCR system. The AR procedure aims to modify the acoustic signals (from the target domain) to repurpose a pretrained SCR model (from the source domain). To solve the label mismatches between source and target domains, and further improve the stability of AR, we propose a novel similarity-based label mapping technique to align classes. In addition, the transfer learning (TL) technique is combined with the original AR process to improve the model adaptation capability. We evaluate the proposed AR-SCR system on three low-resource SCR datasets, including Arabic, Lithuanian, and dysarthric Mandarin speech. Experimental results show that with a pretrained AM trained on a large-scale English dataset, the proposed AR-SCR system outperforms the current state-of-the-art results on Arabic and Lithuanian speech commands datasets, with only a limited amount of training data.

* Submitted to ICASSP 2022 

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Multi-Time-Scale Convolution for Emotion Recognition from Speech Audio Signals

Mar 06, 2020
Eric Guizzo, Tillman Weyde, Jack Barnett Leveson

Robustness against temporal variations is important for emotion recognition from speech audio, since emotion is ex-pressed through complex spectral patterns that can exhibit significant local dilation and compression on the time axis depending on speaker and context. To address this and potentially other tasks, we introduce the multi-time-scale (MTS) method to create flexibility towards temporal variations when analyzing time-frequency representations of audio data. MTS extends convolutional neural networks with convolution kernels that are scaled and re-sampled along the time axis, to increase temporal flexibility without increasing the number of trainable parameters compared to standard convolutional layers. We evaluate MTS and standard convolutional layers in different architectures for emotion recognition from speech audio, using 4 datasets of different sizes. The results show that the use of MTS layers consistently improves the generalization of networks of different capacity and depth, compared to standard convolution, especially on smaller datasets

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Generating Synthetic Audio Data for Attention-Based Speech Recognition Systems

Dec 19, 2019
Nick Rossenbach, Albert Zeyer, Ralf Schlüter, Hermann Ney

Recent advances in text-to-speech (TTS) led to the development of flexible multi-speaker end-to-end TTS systems. We extend state-of-the-art attention-based automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems with synthetic audio generated by a TTS system trained only on the ASR corpora itself. ASR and TTS systems are built separately to show that text-only data can be used to enhance existing end-to-end ASR systems without the necessity of parameter or architecture changes. We compare our method with language model integration of the same text data and with simple data augmentation methods like SpecAugment and show that performance improvements are mostly independent. We achieve improvements of up to 33% relative in word-error-rate (WER) over a strong baseline with data-augmentation in a low-resource environment (LibriSpeech-100h), closing the gap to a comparable oracle experiment by more than 50\%. We also show improvements of up to 5% relative WER over our most recent ASR baseline on LibriSpeech-960h.

* Submitted to ICASSP 2020 

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