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"speech": models, code, and papers

Self-Supervised Learning from Contrastive Mixtures for Personalized Speech Enhancement

Nov 06, 2020
Aswin Sivaraman, Minje Kim

This work explores how self-supervised learning can be universally used to discover speaker-specific features towards enabling personalized speech enhancement models. We specifically address the few-shot learning scenario where access to cleaning recordings of a test-time speaker is limited to a few seconds, but noisy recordings of the speaker are abundant. We develop a simple contrastive learning procedure which treats the abundant noisy data as makeshift training targets through pairwise noise injection: the model is pretrained to maximize agreement between pairs of differently deformed identical utterances and to minimize agreement between pairs of similarly deformed nonidentical utterances. Our experiments compare the proposed pretraining approach with two baseline alternatives: speaker-agnostic fully-supervised pretraining, and speaker-specific self-supervised pretraining without contrastive loss terms. Of all three approaches, the proposed method using contrastive mixtures is found to be most robust to model compression (using 85% fewer parameters) and reduced clean speech (requiring only 3 seconds).

* 4 pages, 4 figures, submitted for NeurIPS SAS Workshop 2020 and ICASSP 2021 

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Deep Voice 2: Multi-Speaker Neural Text-to-Speech

Sep 20, 2017
Sercan Arik, Gregory Diamos, Andrew Gibiansky, John Miller, Kainan Peng, Wei Ping, Jonathan Raiman, Yanqi Zhou

We introduce a technique for augmenting neural text-to-speech (TTS) with lowdimensional trainable speaker embeddings to generate different voices from a single model. As a starting point, we show improvements over the two state-ofthe-art approaches for single-speaker neural TTS: Deep Voice 1 and Tacotron. We introduce Deep Voice 2, which is based on a similar pipeline with Deep Voice 1, but constructed with higher performance building blocks and demonstrates a significant audio quality improvement over Deep Voice 1. We improve Tacotron by introducing a post-processing neural vocoder, and demonstrate a significant audio quality improvement. We then demonstrate our technique for multi-speaker speech synthesis for both Deep Voice 2 and Tacotron on two multi-speaker TTS datasets. We show that a single neural TTS system can learn hundreds of unique voices from less than half an hour of data per speaker, while achieving high audio quality synthesis and preserving the speaker identities almost perfectly.

* Accepted in NIPS 2017 

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Impact of Dataset on Acoustic Models for Automatic Speech Recognition

Mar 25, 2022
Siddhesh Singh

In Automatic Speech Recognition, GMM-HMM had been widely used for acoustic modelling. With the current advancement of deep learning, the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) from acoustic models has been replaced with Deep Neural Network, namely DNN-HMM Acoustic Models. The GMM models are widely used to create the alignments of the training data for the hybrid deep neural network model, thus making it an important task to create accurate alignments. Many factors such as training dataset size, training data augmentation, model hyperparameters, etc., affect the model learning. Traditionally in machine learning, larger datasets tend to have better performance, while smaller datasets tend to trigger over-fitting. The collection of speech data and their accurate transcriptions is a significant challenge that varies over different languages, and in most cases, it might be limited to big organizations. Moreover, in the case of available large datasets, training a model using such data requires additional time and computing resources, which may not be available. While the data about the accuracy of state-of-the-art ASR models on open-source datasets are published, the study about the impact of the size of a dataset on acoustic models is not readily available. This work aims to investigate the impact of dataset size variations on the performance of various GMM-HMM Acoustic Models and their respective computational costs.

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Extracting linguistic speech patterns of Japanese fictional characters using subword units

Mar 05, 2022
Mika Kishino, Kanako Komiya

This study extracted and analyzed the linguistic speech patterns that characterize Japanese anime or game characters. Conventional morphological analyzers, such as MeCab, segment words with high performance, but they are unable to segment broken expressions or utterance endings that are not listed in the dictionary, which often appears in lines of anime or game characters. To overcome this challenge, we propose segmenting lines of Japanese anime or game characters using subword units that were proposed mainly for deep learning, and extracting frequently occurring strings to obtain expressions that characterize their utterances. We analyzed the subword units weighted by TF/IDF according to gender, age, and each anime character and show that they are linguistic speech patterns that are specific for each feature. Additionally, a classification experiment shows that the model with subword units outperformed that with the conventional method.

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Speech & Song Emotion Recognition Using Multilayer Perceptron and Standard Vector Machine

May 19, 2021
Behzad Javaheri

Herein, we have compared the performance of SVM and MLP in emotion recognition using speech and song channels of the RAVDESS dataset. We have undertaken a journey to extract various audio features, identify optimal scaling strategy and hyperparameter for our models. To increase sample size, we have performed audio data augmentation and addressed data imbalance using SMOTE. Our data indicate that optimised SVM outperforms MLP with an accuracy of 82 compared to 75%. Following data augmentation, the performance of both algorithms was identical at ~79%, however, overfitting was evident for the SVM. Our final exploration indicated that the performance of both SVM and MLP were similar in which both resulted in lower accuracy for the speech channel compared to the song channel. Our findings suggest that both SVM and MLP are powerful classifiers for emotion recognition in a vocal-dependent manner.

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A Comparison of Label-Synchronous and Frame-Synchronous End-to-End Models for Speech Recognition

May 25, 2020
Linhao Dong, Cheng Yi, Jianzong Wang, Shiyu Zhou, Shuang Xu, Xueli Jia, Bo Xu

End-to-end models are gaining wider attention in the field of automatic speech recognition (ASR). One of their advantages is the simplicity of building that directly recognizes the speech frame sequence into the text label sequence by neural networks. According to the driving end in the recognition process, end-to-end ASR models could be categorized into two types: label-synchronous and frame-synchronous, each of which has unique model behaviour and characteristic. In this work, we make a detailed comparison on a representative label-synchronous model (transformer) and a soft frame-synchronous model (continuous integrate-and-fire (CIF) based model). The results on three public dataset and a large-scale dataset with 12000 hours of training data show that the two types of models have respective advantages that are consistent with their synchronous mode.

* 4 pages, 2 figures 

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GELP: GAN-Excited Linear Prediction for Speech Synthesis from Mel-spectrogram

Apr 10, 2019
Lauri Juvela, Bajibabu Bollepalli, Junichi Yamagishi, Paavo Alku

Recent advances in neural network -based text-to-speech have reached human level naturalness in synthetic speech. The present sequence-to-sequence models can directly map text to mel-spectrogram acoustic features, which are convenient for modeling, but present additional challenges for vocoding (i.e., waveform generation from the acoustic features). High-quality synthesis can be achieved with neural vocoders, such as WaveNet, but such autoregressive models suffer from slow sequential inference. Meanwhile, their existing parallel inference counterparts are difficult to train and require increasingly large model sizes. In this paper, we propose an alternative training strategy for a parallel neural vocoder utilizing generative adversarial networks, and integrate a linear predictive synthesis filter into the model. Results show that the proposed model achieves significant improvement in inference speed, while outperforming a WaveNet in copy-synthesis quality.

* Submitted to Interspeech 2019; fixed typo in title 

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Leveraging Out-of-Task Data for End-to-End Automatic Speech Translation

Sep 14, 2019
Juan Pino, Liezl Puzon, Jiatao Gu, Xutai Ma, Arya D. McCarthy, Deepak Gopinath

For automatic speech translation (AST), end-to-end approaches are outperformed by cascaded models that transcribe with automatic speech recognition (ASR), then translate with machine translation (MT). A major cause of the performance gap is that, while existing AST corpora are small, massive datasets exist for both the ASR and MT subsystems. In this work, we evaluate several data augmentation and pretraining approaches for AST, comparing all on the same datasets. Simple data augmentation by translating ASR transcripts proves most effective on the English--French augmented LibriSpeech dataset, closing the performance gap from 8.2 to 1.4 BLEU, compared to a very strong cascade that could directly utilize copious ASR and MT data. The same end-to-end approach plus fine-tuning closes the gap on the English--Romanian MuST-C dataset from 6.7 to 3.7 BLEU. In addition to these results, we present practical recommendations for augmentation and pretraining approaches. Finally, we decrease the performance gap to 0.01 BLEU using a Transformer-based architecture.

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Semantic Mask for Transformer based End-to-End Speech Recognition

Dec 06, 2019
Chengyi Wang, Yu Wu, Yujiao Du, Jinyu Li, Shujie Liu, Liang Lu, Shuo Ren, Guoli Ye, Sheng Zhao, Ming Zhou

Attention-based encoder-decoder model has achieved impressive results for both automatic speech recognition (ASR) and text-to-speech (TTS) tasks. This approach takes advantage of the memorization capacity of neural networks to learn the mapping from the input sequence to the output sequence from scratch, without the assumption of prior knowledge such as the alignments. However, this model is prone to overfitting, especially when the amount of training data is limited. Inspired by SpecAugment and BERT, in this paper, we propose a semantic mask based regularization for training such kind of end-to-end (E2E) model. The idea is to mask the input features corresponding to a particular output token, e.g., a word or a word-piece, in order to encourage the model to fill the token based on the contextual information. While this approach is applicable to the encoder-decoder framework with any type of neural network architecture, we study the transformer-based model for ASR in this work. We perform experiments on Librispeech 960h and TedLium2 data sets, and achieve the state-of-the-art performance on the test set in the scope of E2E models.

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