Motivated by the success of T5 (Text-To-Text Transfer Transformer) in pre-training natural language processing models, we propose a unified-modal SpeechT5 framework that explores the encoder-decoder pre-training for self-supervised speech/text representation learning. The SpeechT5 framework consists of a shared encoder-decoder network and six modal-specific (speech/text) pre/post-nets. After preprocessing the speech/text input through the pre-nets, the shared encoder-decoder network models the sequence to sequence transformation, and then the post-nets generate the output in the speech/text modality based on the decoder output. Particularly, SpeechT5 can pre-train on a large scale of unlabeled speech and text data to improve the capability of the speech and textual modeling. To align the textual and speech information into a unified semantic space, we propose a cross-modal vector quantization method with random mixing-up to bridge speech and text. Extensive evaluations on a wide variety of spoken language processing tasks, including voice conversion, automatic speech recognition, text to speech, and speaker identification, show the superiority of the proposed SpeechT5 framework.
Recently, we proposed a novel speaker diarization method called End-to-End-Neural-Diarization-vector clustering (EEND-vector clustering) that integrates clustering-based and end-to-end neural network-based diarization approaches into one framework. The proposed method combines advantages of both frameworks, i.e. high diarization performance and handling of overlapped speech based on EEND, and robust handling of long recordings with an arbitrary number of speakers based on clustering-based approaches. However, the method was only evaluated so far on simulated 2-speaker meeting-like data. This paper is to (1) report recent advances we made to this framework, including newly introduced robust constrained clustering algorithms, and (2) experimentally show that the method can now significantly outperform competitive diarization methods such as Encoder-Decoder Attractor (EDA)-EEND, on CALLHOME data which comprises real conversational speech data including overlapped speech and an arbitrary number of speakers. By further analyzing the experimental results, this paper also discusses pros and cons of the proposed method and reveals potential for further improvement.
Children's automatic speech recognition (ASR) is always difficult due to, in part, the data scarcity problem, especially for kindergarten-aged kids. When data are scarce, the model might overfit to the training data, and hence good starting points for training are essential. Recently, meta-learning was proposed to learn model initialization (MI) for ASR tasks of different languages. This method leads to good performance when the model is adapted to an unseen language. However, MI is vulnerable to overfitting on training tasks (learner overfitting). It is also unknown whether MI generalizes to other low-resource tasks. In this paper, we validate the effectiveness of MI in children's ASR and attempt to alleviate the problem of learner overfitting. To achieve model-agnostic meta-learning (MAML), we regard children's speech at each age as a different task. In terms of learner overfitting, we propose a task-level augmentation method by simulating new ages using frequency warping techniques. Detailed experiments are conducted to show the impact of task augmentation on each age for kindergarten-aged speech. As a result, our approach achieves a relative word error rate (WER) improvement of 51% over the baseline system with no augmentation or initialization.
Cross-speaker style transfer is crucial to the applications of multi-style and expressive speech synthesis at scale. It does not require the target speakers to be experts in expressing all styles and to collect corresponding recordings for model training. However, the performances of existing style transfer methods are still far behind real application needs. The root causes are mainly twofold. Firstly, the style embedding extracted from single reference speech can hardly provide fine-grained and appropriate prosody information for arbitrary text to synthesize. Secondly, in these models the content/text, prosody, and speaker timbre are usually highly entangled, it's therefore not realistic to expect a satisfied result when freely combining these components, such as to transfer speaking style between speakers. In this paper, we propose a cross-speaker style transfer text-to-speech (TTS) model with explicit prosody bottleneck. The prosody bottleneck builds up the kernels accounting for speaking style robustly, and disentangles the prosody from content and speaker timbre, therefore guarantees high quality cross-speaker style transfer. Evaluation result shows the proposed method even achieves on-par performance with source speaker's speaker-dependent (SD) model in objective measurement of prosody, and significantly outperforms the cycle consistency and GMVAE-based baselines in objective and subjective evaluations.
This study addresses the problem of unsupervised subword unit discovery from untranscribed speech. It forms the basis of the ultimate goal of ZeroSpeech 2019, building text-to-speech systems without text labels. In this work, unit discovery is formulated as a pipeline of phonetically discriminative feature learning and unit inference. One major difficulty in robust unsupervised feature learning is dealing with speaker variation. Here the robustness towards speaker variation is achieved by applying adversarial training and FHVAE based disentangled speech representation learning. A comparison of the two approaches as well as their combination is studied in a DNN-bottleneck feature (DNN-BNF) architecture. Experiments are conducted on ZeroSpeech 2019 and 2017. Experimental results on ZeroSpeech 2017 show that both approaches are effective while the latter is more prominent, and that their combination brings further marginal improvement in across-speaker condition. Results on ZeroSpeech 2019 show that in the ABX discriminability task, our approaches significantly outperform the official baseline, and are competitive to or even outperform the official topline. The proposed unit sequence smoothing algorithm improves synthesis quality, at a cost of slight decrease in ABX discriminability.
Noise-robust automatic speech recognition degrades significantly in face of over-suppression problem, which usually exists in the front-end speech enhancement module. To alleviate such issue, we propose novel dual-path style learning for end-to-end noise-robust automatic speech recognition (DPSL-ASR). Specifically, the proposed DPSL-ASR approach introduces clean feature along with fused feature by the IFF-Net as dual-path inputs to recover the over-suppressed information. Furthermore, we propose style learning to learn abundant details and latent information by mapping fused feature to clean feature. Besides, we also utilize the consistency loss to minimize the distance of decoded embeddings between two paths. Experimental results show that the proposed DPSL-ASR approach achieves relative word error rate (WER) reductions of 10.6% and 8.6%, on RATS Channel-A dataset and CHiME-4 1-Channel Track dataset, respectively. The visualizations of intermediate embeddings also indicate that the proposed DPSL-ASR can learn more details than the best baseline. Our code implementation is available at Github: https://github.com/YUCHEN005/DPSL-ASR.
This study tackles unsupervised subword modeling in the zero-resource scenario, learning frame-level speech representation that is phonetically discriminative and speaker-invariant, using only untranscribed speech for target languages. Frame label acquisition is an essential step in solving this problem. High quality frame labels should be in good consistency with golden transcriptions and robust to speaker variation. We propose to improve frame label acquisition in our previously adopted deep neural network-bottleneck feature (DNN-BNF) architecture by applying the factorized hierarchical variational autoencoder (FHVAE). FHVAEs learn to disentangle linguistic content and speaker identity information encoded in speech. By discarding or unifying speaker information, speaker-invariant features are learned and fed as inputs to DPGMM frame clustering and DNN-BNF training. Experiments conducted on ZeroSpeech 2017 show that our proposed approaches achieve $2.4\%$ and $0.6\%$ absolute ABX error rate reductions in across- and within-speaker conditions, comparing to the baseline DNN-BNF system without applying FHVAEs. Our proposed approaches significantly outperform vocal tract length normalization in improving frame labeling and subword modeling.