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"speech": models, code, and papers

Long-span language modeling for speech recognition

Nov 11, 2019
Sarangarajan Parthasarathy, William Gale, Xie Chen, George Polovets, Shuangyu Chang

We explore neural language modeling for speech recognition where the context spans multiple sentences. Rather than encode history beyond the current sentence using a cache of words or document-level features, we focus our study on the ability of LSTM and Transformer language models to implicitly learn to carry over context across sentence boundaries. We introduce a new architecture that incorporates an attention mechanism into LSTM to combine the benefits of recurrent and attention architectures. We conduct language modeling and speech recognition experiments on the publicly available LibriSpeech corpus. We show that conventional training on a paragraph-level corpus results in significant reductions in perplexity compared to training on a sentence-level corpus. We also describe speech recognition experiments using long-span language models in second-pass re-ranking, and provide insights into the ability of such models to take advantage of context beyond the current sentence.


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EfficientNet-Absolute Zero for Continuous Speech Keyword Spotting

Dec 31, 2020
Amir Mohammad Rostami, Ali Karimi, Mohammad Ali Akhaee

Keyword spotting is a process of finding some specific words or phrases in recorded speeches by computers. Deep neural network algorithms, as a powerful engine, can handle this problem if they are trained over an appropriate dataset. To this end, the football keyword dataset (FKD), as a new keyword spotting dataset in Persian, is collected with crowdsourcing. This dataset contains nearly 31000 samples in 18 classes. The continuous speech synthesis method proposed to made FKD usable in the practical application which works with continuous speeches. Besides, we proposed a lightweight architecture called EfficientNet-A0 (absolute zero) by applying the compound scaling method on EfficientNet-B0 for keyword spotting task. Finally, the proposed architecture is evaluated with various models. It is realized that EfficientNet-A0 and Resnet models outperform other models on this dataset.

* 9 pages, 2 figures 

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Learning to Recognise Words using Visually Grounded Speech

May 31, 2020
Sebastiaan Scholten, Danny Merkx, Odette Scharenborg

We investigated word recognition in a Visually Grounded Speech model. The model has been trained on pairs of images and spoken captions to create visually grounded embeddings which can be used for speech to image retrieval and vice versa. We investigate whether such a model can be used to recognise words by embedding isolated words and using them to retrieve images of their visual referents. We investigate the time-course of word recognition using a gating paradigm and perform a statistical analysis to see whether well known word competition effects in human speech processing influence word recognition. Our experiments show that the model is able to recognise words, and the gating paradigm reveals that words can be recognised from partial input as well and that recognition is negatively influenced by word competition from the word initial cohort.


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Wavesplit: End-to-End Speech Separation by Speaker Clustering

Feb 20, 2020
Neil Zeghidour, David Grangier

We introduce Wavesplit, an end-to-end speech separation system. From a single recording of mixed speech, the model infers and clusters representations of each speaker and then estimates each source signal conditioned on the inferred representations. The model is trained on the raw waveform to jointly perform the two tasks. Our model infers a set of speaker representations through clustering, which addresses the fundamental permutation problem of speech separation. Moreover, the sequence-wide speaker representations provide a more robust separation of long, challenging sequences, compared to previous approaches. We show that Wavesplit outperforms the previous state-of-the-art on clean mixtures of 2 or 3 speakers (WSJ0-2mix, WSJ0-3mix), as well as in noisy (WHAM!) and reverberated (WHAMR!) conditions. As an additional contribution, we further improve our model by introducing online data augmentation for separation.


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Hierarchical Generative Modeling for Controllable Speech Synthesis

Oct 16, 2018
Wei-Ning Hsu, Yu Zhang, Ron J. Weiss, Heiga Zen, Yonghui Wu, Yuxuan Wang, Yuan Cao, Ye Jia, Zhifeng Chen, Jonathan Shen, Patrick Nguyen, Ruoming Pang

This paper proposes a neural end-to-end text-to-speech (TTS) model which can control latent attributes in the generated speech that are rarely annotated in the training data, such as speaking style, accent, background noise, and recording conditions. The model is formulated as a conditional generative model with two levels of hierarchical latent variables. The first level is a categorical variable, which represents attribute groups (e.g. clean/noisy) and provides interpretability. The second level, conditioned on the first, is a multivariate Gaussian variable, which characterizes specific attribute configurations (e.g. noise level, speaking rate) and enables disentangled fine-grained control over these attributes. This amounts to using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for the latent distribution. Extensive evaluation demonstrates its ability to control the aforementioned attributes. In particular, it is capable of consistently synthesizing high-quality clean speech regardless of the quality of the training data for the target speaker.


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Recognizing Explicit and Implicit Hate Speech Using a Weakly Supervised Two-path Bootstrapping Approach

May 22, 2018
Lei Gao, Alexis Kuppersmith, Ruihong Huang

In the wake of a polarizing election, social media is laden with hateful content. To address various limitations of supervised hate speech classification methods including corpus bias and huge cost of annotation, we propose a weakly supervised two-path bootstrapping approach for an online hate speech detection model leveraging large-scale unlabeled data. This system significantly outperforms hate speech detection systems that are trained in a supervised manner using manually annotated data. Applying this model on a large quantity of tweets collected before, after, and on election day reveals motivations and patterns of inflammatory language.

* Published in IJCNLP 2017 

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Techniques for Feature Extraction In Speech Recognition System : A Comparative Study

May 06, 2013
Urmila Shrawankar, V M Thakare

The time domain waveform of a speech signal carries all of the auditory information. From the phonological point of view, it little can be said on the basis of the waveform itself. However, past research in mathematics, acoustics, and speech technology have provided many methods for converting data that can be considered as information if interpreted correctly. In order to find some statistically relevant information from incoming data, it is important to have mechanisms for reducing the information of each segment in the audio signal into a relatively small number of parameters, or features. These features should describe each segment in such a characteristic way that other similar segments can be grouped together by comparing their features. There are enormous interesting and exceptional ways to describe the speech signal in terms of parameters. Though, they all have their strengths and weaknesses, we have presented some of the most used methods with their importance.

* International Journal Of Computer Applications In Engineering, Technology and Sciences (IJCAETS),ISSN 0974-3596,2010,pp 412-418 
* Pages: 9 Figures : 3 

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Configurable Privacy-Preserving Automatic Speech Recognition

Apr 01, 2021
Ranya Aloufi, Hamed Haddadi, David Boyle

Voice assistive technologies have given rise to far-reaching privacy and security concerns. In this paper we investigate whether modular automatic speech recognition (ASR) can improve privacy in voice assistive systems by combining independently trained separation, recognition, and discretization modules to design configurable privacy-preserving ASR systems. We evaluate privacy concerns and the effects of applying various state-of-the-art techniques at each stage of the system, and report results using task-specific metrics (i.e. WER, ABX, and accuracy). We show that overlapping speech inputs to ASR systems present further privacy concerns, and how these may be mitigated using speech separation and optimization techniques. Our discretization module is shown to minimize paralinguistics privacy leakage from ASR acoustic models to levels commensurate with random guessing. We show that voice privacy can be configurable, and argue this presents new opportunities for privacy-preserving applications incorporating ASR.

* 5 pages, 1 figure 

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Membership Inference Attacks Against Self-supervised Speech Models

Nov 09, 2021
Wei-Cheng Tseng, Wei-Tsung Kao, Hung-yi Lee

Recently, adapting the idea of self-supervised learning (SSL) on continuous speech has started gaining attention. SSL models pre-trained on a huge amount of unlabeled audio can generate general-purpose representations that benefit a wide variety of speech processing tasks. Despite their ubiquitous deployment, however, the potential privacy risks of these models have not been well investigated. In this paper, we present the first privacy analysis on several SSL speech models using Membership Inference Attacks (MIA) under black-box access. The experiment results show that these pre-trained models are vulnerable to MIA and prone to membership information leakage with high adversarial advantage scores in both utterance-level and speaker-level. Furthermore, we also conduct several ablation studies to understand the factors that contribute to the success of MIA.

* Submitted to ICASSP 2022. Source code available at https://github.com/RayTzeng/s3m-membership-inference 

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End-to-End Multi-Channel Speech Separation

May 28, 2019
Rongzhi Gu, Jian Wu, Shi-Xiong Zhang, Lianwu Chen, Yong Xu, Meng Yu, Dan Su, Yuexian Zou, Dong Yu

The end-to-end approach for single-channel speech separation has been studied recently and shown promising results. This paper extended the previous approach and proposed a new end-to-end model for multi-channel speech separation. The primary contributions of this work include 1) an integrated waveform-in waveform-out separation system in a single neural network architecture. 2) We reformulate the traditional short time Fourier transform (STFT) and inter-channel phase difference (IPD) as a function of time-domain convolution with a special kernel. 3) We further relaxed those fixed kernels to be learnable, so that the entire architecture becomes purely data-driven and can be trained from end-to-end. We demonstrate on the WSJ0 far-field speech separation task that, with the benefit of learnable spatial features, our proposed end-to-end multi-channel model significantly improved the performance of previous end-to-end single-channel method and traditional multi-channel methods.

* submitted to interspeech 2019 

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