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"speech": models, code, and papers

Post-Editing Error Correction Algorithm for Speech Recognition using Bing Spelling Suggestion

Mar 23, 2012
Youssef Bassil, Mohammad Alwani

ASR short for Automatic Speech Recognition is the process of converting a spoken speech into text that can be manipulated by a computer. Although ASR has several applications, it is still erroneous and imprecise especially if used in a harsh surrounding wherein the input speech is of low quality. This paper proposes a post-editing ASR error correction method and algorithm based on Bing's online spelling suggestion. In this approach, the ASR recognized output text is spell-checked using Bing's spelling suggestion technology to detect and correct misrecognized words. More specifically, the proposed algorithm breaks down the ASR output text into several word-tokens that are submitted as search queries to Bing search engine. A returned spelling suggestion implies that a query is misspelled; and thus it is replaced by the suggested correction; otherwise, no correction is performed and the algorithm continues with the next token until all tokens get validated. Experiments carried out on various speeches in different languages indicated a successful decrease in the number of ASR errors and an improvement in the overall error correction rate. Future research can improve upon the proposed algorithm so much so that it can be parallelized to take advantage of multiprocessor computers.

* International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, Vol.3, No.2, February 2012 
* LACSC - Lebanese Association for Computational Sciences - 

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VQMIVC: Vector Quantization and Mutual Information-Based Unsupervised Speech Representation Disentanglement for One-shot Voice Conversion

Jun 18, 2021
Disong Wang, Liqun Deng, Yu Ting Yeung, Xiao Chen, Xunying Liu, Helen Meng

One-shot voice conversion (VC), which performs conversion across arbitrary speakers with only a single target-speaker utterance for reference, can be effectively achieved by speech representation disentanglement. Existing work generally ignores the correlation between different speech representations during training, which causes leakage of content information into the speaker representation and thus degrades VC performance. To alleviate this issue, we employ vector quantization (VQ) for content encoding and introduce mutual information (MI) as the correlation metric during training, to achieve proper disentanglement of content, speaker and pitch representations, by reducing their inter-dependencies in an unsupervised manner. Experimental results reflect the superiority of the proposed method in learning effective disentangled speech representations for retaining source linguistic content and intonation variations, while capturing target speaker characteristics. In doing so, the proposed approach achieves higher speech naturalness and speaker similarity than current state-of-the-art one-shot VC systems. Our code, pre-trained models and demo are available at

* Accepted to Interspeech 2021. Code, pre-trained models and demo are available at 

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On-the-fly Feature Based Speaker Adaptation for Dysarthric and Elderly Speech Recognition

Apr 05, 2022
Mengzhe Geng, Xurong Xie, Rongfeng Su, Jianwei Yu, Zi Ye, Xunying Liu, Helen Meng

Automatic recognition of dysarthric and elderly speech highly challenging tasks to date. Speaker-level heterogeneity attributed to accent or gender commonly found in normal speech, when aggregated with age and speech impairment severity, create large diversity among speakers. Speaker adaptation techniques play a crucial role in personalization of ASR systems for such users. Their mobility issues limit the amount of speaker-level data available for model based adaptation. To this end, this paper investigates two novel forms of feature based on-the-fly rapid speaker adaptation approaches. The first is based on speaker-level variance regularized spectral basis embedding (SBEVR) features, while the other uses on-the-fly learning hidden unit contributions (LHUC) transforms conditioned on speaker-level spectral features. Experiments conducted on the UASpeech dysarthric and DimentiaBank Pitt elderly speech datasets suggest the proposed SBEVR features based adaptation statistically significantly outperform both the baseline on-the-fly i-Vector adapted hybrid TDNN/DNN systems by up to 2.48% absolute (7.92% relative) reduction in word error rate (WER), and offline batch mode model based LHUC adaptation using all speaker-level data by 0.78% absolute (2.41% relative) in WER reduction.

* In submission to Interspeech 2022 

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HASP: A High-Performance Adaptive Mobile Security Enhancement Against Malicious Speech Recognition

Sep 04, 2018
Zirui Xu, Fuxun Yu, Chenchen Liu, Xiang Chen

Nowadays, machine learning based Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technique has widely spread in smartphones, home devices, and public facilities. As convenient as this technology can be, a considerable security issue also raises -- the users' speech content might be exposed to malicious ASR monitoring and cause severe privacy leakage. In this work, we propose HASP -- a high-performance security enhancement approach to solve this security issue on mobile devices. Leveraging ASR systems' vulnerability to the adversarial examples, HASP is designed to cast human imperceptible adversarial noises to real-time speech and effectively perturb malicious ASR monitoring by increasing the Word Error Rate (WER). To enhance the practical performance on mobile devices, HASP is also optimized for effective adaptation to the human speech characteristics, environmental noises, and mobile computation scenarios. The experiments show that HASP can achieve optimal real-time security enhancement: it can lead an average WER of 84.55% for perturbing the malicious ASR monitoring, and the data processing speed is 15x to 40x faster compared to the state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, HASP can effectively perturb various ASR systems, demonstrating a strong transferability.

* 8 pages, 10 figures 

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Improving Speech Related Facial Action Unit Recognition by Audiovisual Information Fusion

Jun 29, 2017
Zibo Meng, Shizhong Han, Ping Liu, Yan Tong

It is challenging to recognize facial action unit (AU) from spontaneous facial displays, especially when they are accompanied by speech. The major reason is that the information is extracted from a single source, i.e., the visual channel, in the current practice. However, facial activity is highly correlated with voice in natural human communications. Instead of solely improving visual observations, this paper presents a novel audiovisual fusion framework, which makes the best use of visual and acoustic cues in recognizing speech-related facial AUs. In particular, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is employed to explicitly model the semantic and dynamic physiological relationships between AUs and phonemes as well as measurement uncertainty. A pilot audiovisual AU-coded database has been collected to evaluate the proposed framework, which consists of a "clean" subset containing frontal faces under well controlled circumstances and a challenging subset with large head movements and occlusions. Experiments on this database have demonstrated that the proposed framework yields significant improvement in recognizing speech-related AUs compared to the state-of-the-art visual-based methods especially for those AUs whose visual observations are impaired during speech, and more importantly also outperforms feature-level fusion methods by explicitly modeling and exploiting physiological relationships between AUs and phonemes.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1706.07536 

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Content-Dependent Fine-Grained Speaker Embedding for Zero-Shot Speaker Adaptation in Text-to-Speech Synthesis

Apr 03, 2022
Yixuan Zhou, Changhe Song, Xiang Li, Luwen Zhang, Zhiyong Wu, Yanyao Bian, Dan Su, Helen Meng

Zero-shot speaker adaptation aims to clone an unseen speaker's voice without any adaptation time and parameters. Previous researches usually use a speaker encoder to extract a global fixed speaker embedding from reference speech, and several attempts have tried variable-length speaker embedding. However, they neglect to transfer the personal pronunciation characteristics related to phoneme content, leading to poor speaker similarity in terms of detailed speaking styles and pronunciation habits. To improve the ability of the speaker encoder to model personal pronunciation characteristics, we propose content-dependent fine-grained speaker embedding for zero-shot speaker adaptation. The corresponding local content embeddings and speaker embeddings are extracted from a reference speech, respectively. Instead of modeling the temporal relations, a reference attention module is introduced to model the content relevance between the reference speech and the input text, and to generate the fine-grained speaker embedding for each phoneme encoder output. The experimental results show that our proposed method can improve speaker similarity of synthesized speeches, especially for unseen speakers.

* Submitted to Interspeech 2022 

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The ASRU 2019 Mandarin-English Code-Switching Speech Recognition Challenge: Open Datasets, Tracks, Methods and Results

Jul 12, 2020
Xian Shi, Qiangze Feng, Lei Xie

Code-switching (CS) is a common phenomenon and recognizing CS speech is challenging. But CS speech data is scarce and there' s no common testbed in relevant research. This paper describes the design and main outcomes of the ASRU 2019 Mandarin-English code-switching speech recognition challenge, which aims to improve the ASR performance in Mandarin-English code-switching situation. 500 hours Mandarin speech data and 240 hours Mandarin-English intra-sentencial CS data are released to the participants. Three tracks were set for advancing the AM and LM part in traditional DNN-HMM ASR system, as well as exploring the E2E models' performance. The paper then presents an overview of the results and system performance in the three tracks. It turns out that traditional ASR system benefits from pronunciation lexicon, CS text generating and data augmentation. In E2E track, however, the results highlight the importance of using language identification, building-up a rational set of modeling units and spec-augment. The other details in model training and method comparsion are discussed.

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U-Former: Improving Monaural Speech Enhancement with Multi-head Self and Cross Attention

May 18, 2022
Xinmeng Xu, Jianjun Hao

For supervised speech enhancement, contextual information is important for accurate spectral mapping. However, commonly used deep neural networks (DNNs) are limited in capturing temporal contexts. To leverage long-term contexts for tracking a target speaker, this paper treats the speech enhancement as sequence-to-sequence mapping, and propose a novel monaural speech enhancement U-net structure based on Transformer, dubbed U-Former. The key idea is to model long-term correlations and dependencies, which are crucial for accurate noisy speech modeling, through the multi-head attention mechanisms. For this purpose, U-Former incorporates multi-head attention mechanisms at two levels: 1) a multi-head self-attention module which calculate the attention map along both time- and frequency-axis to generate time and frequency sub-attention maps for leveraging global interactions between encoder features, while 2) multi-head cross-attention module which are inserted in the skip connections allows a fine recovery in the decoder by filtering out uncorrelated features. Experimental results illustrate that the U-Former obtains consistently better performance than recent models of PESQ, STOI, and SSNR scores.

* Accepted by ICPR 2022. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2112.06052, arXiv:2103.06104, arXiv:2103.09963 by other authors 

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Joint Audio-Text Model for Expressive Speech-Driven 3D Facial Animation

Dec 07, 2021
Yingruo Fan, Zhaojiang Lin, Jun Saito, Wenping Wang, Taku Komura

Speech-driven 3D facial animation with accurate lip synchronization has been widely studied. However, synthesizing realistic motions for the entire face during speech has rarely been explored. In this work, we present a joint audio-text model to capture the contextual information for expressive speech-driven 3D facial animation. The existing datasets are collected to cover as many different phonemes as possible instead of sentences, thus limiting the capability of the audio-based model to learn more diverse contexts. To address this, we propose to leverage the contextual text embeddings extracted from the powerful pre-trained language model that has learned rich contextual representations from large-scale text data. Our hypothesis is that the text features can disambiguate the variations in upper face expressions, which are not strongly correlated with the audio. In contrast to prior approaches which learn phoneme-level features from the text, we investigate the high-level contextual text features for speech-driven 3D facial animation. We show that the combined acoustic and textual modalities can synthesize realistic facial expressions while maintaining audio-lip synchronization. We conduct the quantitative and qualitative evaluations as well as the perceptual user study. The results demonstrate the superior performance of our model against existing state-of-the-art approaches.

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Transformer-based Online CTC/attention End-to-End Speech Recognition Architecture

Feb 11, 2020
Haoran Miao, Gaofeng Cheng, Changfeng Gao, Pengyuan Zhang, Yonghong Yan

Recently, Transformer has gained success in automatic speech recognition (ASR) field. However, it is challenging to deploy a Transformer-based end-to-end (E2E) model for online speech recognition. In this paper, we propose the Transformer-based online CTC/attention E2E ASR architecture, which contains the chunk self-attention encoder (chunk-SAE) and the monotonic truncated attention (MTA) based self-attention decoder (SAD). Firstly, the chunk-SAE splits the speech into isolated chunks. To reduce the computational cost and improve the performance, we propose the state reuse chunk-SAE. Sencondly, the MTA based SAD truncates the speech features monotonically and performs attention on the truncated features. To support the online recognition, we integrate the state reuse chunk-SAE and the MTA based SAD into online CTC/attention architecture. We evaluate the proposed online models on the HKUST Mandarin ASR benchmark and achieve a 23.66% character error rate (CER) with a 320 ms latency. Our online model yields as little as 0.19% absolute CER degradation compared with the offline baseline, and achieves significant improvement over our prior work on Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) based online E2E models.

* Accepted by ICASSP 2020 

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