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"speech": models, code, and papers

Multi-task self-supervised learning for Robust Speech Recognition

Jan 25, 2020
Mirco Ravanelli, Jianyuan Zhong, Santiago Pascual, Pawel Swietojanski, Joao Monteiro, Jan Trmal, Yoshua Bengio

Despite the growing interest in unsupervised learning, extracting meaningful knowledge from unlabelled audio remains an open challenge. To take a step in this direction, we recently proposed a problem-agnostic speech encoder (PASE), that combines a convolutional encoder followed by multiple neural networks, called workers, tasked to solve self-supervised problems (i.e., ones that do not require manual annotations as ground truth). PASE was shown to capture relevant speech information, including speaker voice-print and phonemes. This paper proposes PASE+, an improved version of PASE for robust speech recognition in noisy and reverberant environments. To this end, we employ an online speech distortion module, that contaminates the input signals with a variety of random disturbances. We then propose a revised encoder that better learns short- and long-term speech dynamics with an efficient combination of recurrent and convolutional networks. Finally, we refine the set of workers used in self-supervision to encourage better cooperation. Results on TIMIT, DIRHA and CHiME-5 show that PASE+ significantly outperforms both the previous version of PASE as well as common acoustic features. Interestingly, PASE+ learns transferable representations suitable for highly mismatched acoustic conditions.

* Accepted at ICASSP 2020 

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ClovaCall: Korean Goal-Oriented Dialog Speech Corpus for Automatic Speech Recognition of Contact Centers

May 17, 2020
Jung-Woo Ha, Kihyun Nam, Jingu Kang, Sang-Woo Lee, Sohee Yang, Hyunhoon Jung, Eunmi Kim, Hyeji Kim, Soojin Kim, Hyun Ah Kim, Kyoungtae Doh, Chan Kyu Lee, Nako Sung, Sunghun Kim

Automatic speech recognition (ASR) via call is essential for various applications, including AI for contact center (AICC) services. Despite the advancement of ASR, however, most publicly available call-based speech corpora such as Switchboard are old-fashioned. Also, most existing call corpora are in English and mainly focus on open domain dialog or general scenarios such as audiobooks. Here we introduce a new large-scale Korean call-based speech corpus under a goal-oriented dialog scenario from more than 11,000 people, i.e., ClovaCall corpus. ClovaCall includes approximately 60,000 pairs of a short sentence and its corresponding spoken utterance in a restaurant reservation domain. We validate the effectiveness of our dataset with intensive experiments using two standard ASR models. Furthermore, we release our ClovaCall dataset and baseline source codes to be available via https://github.com/ClovaAI/ClovaCall.

* 5 pages, 2 figures, 4 tables, The first two authors equally contributed to this work 

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Application of Fuzzy Mathematics to Speech-to-Text Conversion by Elimination of Paralinguistic Content

Sep 20, 2012
Sachin Lakra, T. V. Prasad, Deepak Kumar Sharma, Shree Harsh Atrey, Anubhav Kumar Sharma

For the past few decades, man has been trying to create an intelligent computer which can talk and respond like he can. The task of creating a system that can talk like a human being is the primary objective of Automatic Speech Recognition. Various Speech Recognition techniques have been developed in theory and have been applied in practice. This paper discusses the problems that have been encountered in developing Speech Recognition, the techniques that have been applied to automate the task, and a representation of the core problems of present day Speech Recognition by using Fuzzy Mathematics.

* Published in proceedings of National Conference on Soft Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2009, Faridabad, Haryana, India, Jan 2009 
* 6 pages, 3 figures, 1 table. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1001.2267 by other authors 

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Learning to Speak Fluently in a Foreign Language: Multilingual Speech Synthesis and Cross-Language Voice Cloning

Jul 24, 2019
Yu Zhang, Ron J. Weiss, Heiga Zen, Yonghui Wu, Zhifeng Chen, RJ Skerry-Ryan, Ye Jia, Andrew Rosenberg, Bhuvana Ramabhadran

We present a multispeaker, multilingual text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis model based on Tacotron that is able to produce high quality speech in multiple languages. Moreover, the model is able to transfer voices across languages, e.g. synthesize fluent Spanish speech using an English speaker's voice, without training on any bilingual or parallel examples. Such transfer works across distantly related languages, e.g. English and Mandarin. Critical to achieving this result are: 1. using a phonemic input representation to encourage sharing of model capacity across languages, and 2. incorporating an adversarial loss term to encourage the model to disentangle its representation of speaker identity (which is perfectly correlated with language in the training data) from the speech content. Further scaling up the model by training on multiple speakers of each language, and incorporating an autoencoding input to help stabilize attention during training, results in a model which can be used to consistently synthesize intelligible speech for training speakers in all languages seen during training, and in native or foreign accents.

* 5 pages, submitted to Interspeech 2019 

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Dual-Path Modeling for Long Recording Speech Separation in Meetings

Feb 23, 2021
Chenda Li, Zhuo Chen, Yi Luo, Cong Han, Tianyan Zhou, Keisuke Kinoshita, Marc Delcroix, Shinji Watanabe, Yanmin Qian

The continuous speech separation (CSS) is a task to separate the speech sources from a long, partially overlapped recording, which involves a varying number of speakers. A straightforward extension of conventional utterance-level speech separation to the CSS task is to segment the long recording with a size-fixed window and process each window separately. Though effective, this extension fails to model the long dependency in speech and thus leads to sub-optimum performance. The recent proposed dual-path modeling could be a remedy to this problem, thanks to its capability in jointly modeling the cross-window dependency and the local-window processing. In this work, we further extend the dual-path modeling framework for CSS task. A transformer-based dual-path system is proposed, which integrates transform layers for global modeling. The proposed models are applied to LibriCSS, a real recorded multi-talk dataset, and consistent WER reduction can be observed in the ASR evaluation for separated speech. Also, a dual-path transformer equipped with convolutional layers is proposed. It significantly reduces the computation amount by 30% with better WER evaluation. Furthermore, the online processing dual-path models are investigated, which shows 10% relative WER reduction compared to the baseline.

* Accepted by ICASSP 2021 

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TERA: Self-Supervised Learning of Transformer Encoder Representation for Speech

Jul 12, 2020
Andy T. Liu, Shang-Wen Li, Hung-yi Lee

We introduce a self-supervised speech pre-training method called TERA, which stands for Transformer Encoder Representations from Alteration. Recent approaches often learn through the formulation of a single auxiliary task like contrastive prediction, autoregressive prediction, or masked reconstruction. Unlike previous approaches, we use a multi-target auxiliary task to pre-train Transformer Encoders on a large amount of unlabeled speech. The model learns through the reconstruction of acoustic frames from its altered counterpart, where we use a stochastic policy to alter along three dimensions: temporal, channel, and magnitude. TERA can be used to extract speech representations or fine-tune with downstream models. We evaluate TERA on several downstream tasks, including phoneme classification, speaker recognition, and speech recognition. TERA achieved strong performance on these tasks by improving upon surface features and outperforming previous methods. In our experiments, we show that through alteration along different dimensions, the model learns to encode distinct aspects of speech. We explore different knowledge transfer methods to incorporate the pre-trained model with downstream models. Furthermore, we show that the proposed method can be easily transferred to another dataset not used in pre-training.

* Submitted to IEEE TASLP, currently under review 

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Improving Accent Conversion with Reference Encoder and End-To-End Text-To-Speech

May 19, 2020
Wenjie Li, Benlai Tang, Xiang Yin, Yushi Zhao, Wei Li, Kang Wang, Hao Huang, Yuxuan Wang, Zejun Ma

Accent conversion (AC) transforms a non-native speaker's accent into a native accent while maintaining the speaker's voice timbre. In this paper, we propose approaches to improving accent conversion applicability, as well as quality. First of all, we assume no reference speech is available at the conversion stage, and hence we employ an end-to-end text-to-speech system that is trained on native speech to generate native reference speech. To improve the quality and accent of the converted speech, we introduce reference encoders which make us capable of utilizing multi-source information. This is motivated by acoustic features extracted from native reference and linguistic information, which are complementary to conventional phonetic posteriorgrams (PPGs), so they can be concatenated as features to improve a baseline system based only on PPGs. Moreover, we optimize model architecture using GMM-based attention instead of windowed attention to elevate synthesized performance. Experimental results indicate when the proposed techniques are applied the integrated system significantly raises the scores of acoustic quality (30$\%$ relative increase in mean opinion score) and native accent (68$\%$ relative preference) while retaining the voice identity of the non-native speaker.


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Articulatory information and Multiview Features for Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition

Feb 16, 2018
Vikramjit Mitra, Wen Wang, Chris Bartels, Horacio Franco, Dimitra Vergyri

This paper explores the use of multi-view features and their discriminative transforms in a convolutional deep neural network (CNN) architecture for a continuous large vocabulary speech recognition task. Mel-filterbank energies and perceptually motivated forced damped oscillator coefficient (DOC) features are used after feature-space maximum-likelihood linear regression (fMLLR) transforms, which are combined and fed as a multi-view feature to a single CNN acoustic model. Use of multi-view feature representation demonstrated significant reduction in word error rates (WERs) compared to the use of individual features by themselves. In addition, when articulatory information was used as an additional input to a fused deep neural network (DNN) and CNN acoustic model, it was found to demonstrate further reduction in WER for the Switchboard subset and the CallHome subset (containing partly non-native accented speech) of the NIST 2000 conversational telephone speech test set, reducing the error rate by 12% relative to the baseline in both cases. This work shows that multi-view features in association with articulatory information can improve speech recognition robustness to spontaneous and non-native speech.

* 5 pages 

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Leveraging Pre-trained Language Model for Speech Sentiment Analysis

Jun 11, 2021
Suwon Shon, Pablo Brusco, Jing Pan, Kyu J. Han, Shinji Watanabe

In this paper, we explore the use of pre-trained language models to learn sentiment information of written texts for speech sentiment analysis. First, we investigate how useful a pre-trained language model would be in a 2-step pipeline approach employing Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and transcripts-based sentiment analysis separately. Second, we propose a pseudo label-based semi-supervised training strategy using a language model on an end-to-end speech sentiment approach to take advantage of a large, but unlabeled speech dataset for training. Although spoken and written texts have different linguistic characteristics, they can complement each other in understanding sentiment. Therefore, the proposed system can not only model acoustic characteristics to bear sentiment-specific information in speech signals, but learn latent information to carry sentiments in the text representation. In these experiments, we demonstrate the proposed approaches improve F1 scores consistently compared to systems without a language model. Moreover, we also show that the proposed framework can reduce 65% of human supervision by leveraging a large amount of data without human sentiment annotation and boost performance in a low-resource condition where the human sentiment annotation is not available enough.

* To appear in Interspeech 2021 

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