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"speech recognition": models, code, and papers

Speech Synthesis as Augmentation for Low-Resource ASR

Dec 23, 2020
Deblin Bagchi, Shannon Wotherspoon, Zhuolin Jiang, Prasanna Muthukumar

Speech synthesis might hold the key to low-resource speech recognition. Data augmentation techniques have become an essential part of modern speech recognition training. Yet, they are simple, naive, and rarely reflect real-world conditions. Meanwhile, speech synthesis techniques have been rapidly getting closer to the goal of achieving human-like speech. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using synthesized speech as a form of data augmentation to lower the resources necessary to build a speech recognizer. We experiment with three different kinds of synthesizers: statistical parametric, neural, and adversarial. Our findings are interesting and point to new research directions for the future.

  

Fine-Grained Grounding for Multimodal Speech Recognition

Oct 05, 2020
Tejas Srinivasan, Ramon Sanabria, Florian Metze, Desmond Elliott

Multimodal automatic speech recognition systems integrate information from images to improve speech recognition quality, by grounding the speech in the visual context. While visual signals have been shown to be useful for recovering entities that have been masked in the audio, these models should be capable of recovering a broader range of word types. Existing systems rely on global visual features that represent the entire image, but localizing the relevant regions of the image will make it possible to recover a larger set of words, such as adjectives and verbs. In this paper, we propose a model that uses finer-grained visual information from different parts of the image, using automatic object proposals. In experiments on the Flickr8K Audio Captions Corpus, we find that our model improves over approaches that use global visual features, that the proposals enable the model to recover entities and other related words, such as adjectives, and that improvements are due to the model's ability to localize the correct proposals.

* Accepted to Findings of EMNLP 2020 
  

Did you hear that? Adversarial Examples Against Automatic Speech Recognition

Jan 02, 2018
Moustafa Alzantot, Bharathan Balaji, Mani Srivastava

Speech is a common and effective way of communication between humans, and modern consumer devices such as smartphones and home hubs are equipped with deep learning based accurate automatic speech recognition to enable natural interaction between humans and machines. Recently, researchers have demonstrated powerful attacks against machine learning models that can fool them to produceincorrect results. However, nearly all previous research in adversarial attacks has focused on image recognition and object detection models. In this short paper, we present a first of its kind demonstration of adversarial attacks against speech classification model. Our algorithm performs targeted attacks with 87% success by adding small background noise without having to know the underlying model parameter and architecture. Our attack only changes the least significant bits of a subset of audio clip samples, and the noise does not change 89% the human listener's perception of the audio clip as evaluated in our human study.

* Published in NIPS 2017 Machine Deception workshop 
  

Acoustic-to-Word Recognition with Sequence-to-Sequence Models

Aug 21, 2018
Shruti Palaskar, Florian Metze

Acoustic-to-Word recognition provides a straightforward solution to end-to-end speech recognition without needing external decoding, language model re-scoring or lexicon. While character-based models offer a natural solution to the out-of-vocabulary problem, word models can be simpler to decode and may also be able to directly recognize semantically meaningful units. We present effective methods to train Sequence-to-Sequence models for direct word-level recognition (and character-level recognition) and show an absolute improvement of 4.4-5.0\% in Word Error Rate on the Switchboard corpus compared to prior work. In addition to these promising results, word-based models are more interpretable than character models, which have to be composed into words using a separate decoding step. We analyze the encoder hidden states and the attention behavior, and show that location-aware attention naturally represents words as a single speech-word-vector, despite spanning multiple frames in the input. We finally show that the Acoustic-to-Word model also learns to segment speech into words with a mean standard deviation of 3 frames as compared with human annotated forced-alignments for the Switchboard corpus.

* 9 pages, 3 figures, Under Review at SLT 2018 
  

NIST SRE CTS Superset: A large-scale dataset for telephony speaker recognition

Aug 16, 2021
Seyed Omid Sadjadi

This document provides a brief description of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) speaker recognition evaluation (SRE) conversational telephone speech (CTS) Superset. The CTS Superset has been created in an attempt to provide the research community with a large-scale dataset along with uniform metadata that can be used to effectively train and develop telephony (narrowband) speaker recognition systems. It contains a large number of telephony speech segments from more than 6800 speakers with speech durations distributed uniformly in the [10s, 60s] range. The segments have been extracted from the source corpora used to compile prior SRE datasets (SRE1996-2012), including the Greybeard corpus as well as the Switchboard and Mixer series collected by the Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC). In addition to the brief description, we also report speaker recognition results on the NIST 2020 CTS Speaker Recognition Challenge, obtained using a system trained with the CTS Superset. The results will serve as a reference baseline for the challenge.

  

Deep word embeddings for visual speech recognition

Oct 30, 2017
Themos Stafylakis, Georgios Tzimiropoulos

In this paper we present a deep learning architecture for extracting word embeddings for visual speech recognition. The embeddings summarize the information of the mouth region that is relevant to the problem of word recognition, while suppressing other types of variability such as speaker, pose and illumination. The system is comprised of a spatiotemporal convolutional layer, a Residual Network and bidirectional LSTMs and is trained on the Lipreading in-the-wild database. We first show that the proposed architecture goes beyond state-of-the-art on closed-set word identification, by attaining 11.92% error rate on a vocabulary of 500 words. We then examine the capacity of the embeddings in modelling words unseen during training. We deploy Probabilistic Linear Discriminant Analysis (PLDA) to model the embeddings and perform low-shot learning experiments on words unseen during training. The experiments demonstrate that word-level visual speech recognition is feasible even in cases where the target words are not included in the training set.

  

Configurable Privacy-Preserving Automatic Speech Recognition

Apr 01, 2021
Ranya Aloufi, Hamed Haddadi, David Boyle

Voice assistive technologies have given rise to far-reaching privacy and security concerns. In this paper we investigate whether modular automatic speech recognition (ASR) can improve privacy in voice assistive systems by combining independently trained separation, recognition, and discretization modules to design configurable privacy-preserving ASR systems. We evaluate privacy concerns and the effects of applying various state-of-the-art techniques at each stage of the system, and report results using task-specific metrics (i.e. WER, ABX, and accuracy). We show that overlapping speech inputs to ASR systems present further privacy concerns, and how these may be mitigated using speech separation and optimization techniques. Our discretization module is shown to minimize paralinguistics privacy leakage from ASR acoustic models to levels commensurate with random guessing. We show that voice privacy can be configurable, and argue this presents new opportunities for privacy-preserving applications incorporating ASR.

* 5 pages, 1 figure 
  

End-to-end speech-to-dialog-act recognition

Apr 23, 2020
Viet-Trung Dang, Tianyu Zhao, Sei Ueno, Hirofumi Inaguma, Tatsuya Kawahara

Spoken language understanding, which extracts intents and/or semantic concepts in utterances, is conventionally formulated as a post-processing of automatic speech recognition. It is usually trained with oracle transcripts, but needs to deal with errors by ASR. Moreover, there are acoustic features which are related with intents but not represented with the transcripts. In this paper, we present an end-to-end model which directly converts speech into dialog acts without the deterministic transcription process. In the proposed model, the dialog act recognition network is conjunct with an acoustic-to-word ASR model at its latent layer before the softmax layer, which provides a distributed representation of word-level ASR decoding information. Then, the entire network is fine-tuned in an end-to-end manner. This allows for stable training as well as robustness against ASR errors. The model is further extended to conduct DA segmentation jointly. Evaluations with the Switchboard corpus demonstrate that the proposed method significantly improves dialog act recognition accuracy from the conventional pipeline framework.

  

Emotion Recognition from Speech Using Wav2vec 2.0 Embeddings

Apr 08, 2021
Leonardo Pepino, Pablo Riera, Luciana Ferrer

Emotion recognition datasets are relatively small, making the use of the more sophisticated deep learning approaches challenging. In this work, we propose a transfer learning method for speech emotion recognition where features extracted from pre-trained wav2vec 2.0 models are modeled using simple neural networks. We propose to combine the output of several layers from the pre-trained model using trainable weights which are learned jointly with the downstream model. Further, we compare performance using two different wav2vec 2.0 models, with and without finetuning for speech recognition. We evaluate our proposed approaches on two standard emotion databases IEMOCAP and RAVDESS, showing superior performance compared to results in the literature.

* 5 pages, 2 figures. Submitted to Interspeech 2021 
  

Deep Feed-forward Sequential Memory Networks for Speech Synthesis

Feb 26, 2018
Mengxiao Bi, Heng Lu, Shiliang Zhang, Ming Lei, Zhijie Yan

The Bidirectional LSTM (BLSTM) RNN based speech synthesis system is among the best parametric Text-to-Speech (TTS) systems in terms of the naturalness of generated speech, especially the naturalness in prosody. However, the model complexity and inference cost of BLSTM prevents its usage in many runtime applications. Meanwhile, Deep Feed-forward Sequential Memory Networks (DFSMN) has shown its consistent out-performance over BLSTM in both word error rate (WER) and the runtime computation cost in speech recognition tasks. Since speech synthesis also requires to model long-term dependencies compared to speech recognition, in this paper, we investigate the Deep-FSMN (DFSMN) in speech synthesis. Both objective and subjective experiments show that, compared with BLSTM TTS method, the DFSMN system can generate synthesized speech with comparable speech quality while drastically reduce model complexity and speech generation time.

* 5 pages, ICASSP 2018 
  
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