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"speech recognition": models, code, and papers

The Role of Phonetic Units in Speech Emotion Recognition

Aug 02, 2021
Jiahong Yuan, Xingyu Cai, Renjie Zheng, Liang Huang, Kenneth Church

We propose a method for emotion recognition through emotiondependent speech recognition using Wav2vec 2.0. Our method achieved a significant improvement over most previously reported results on IEMOCAP, a benchmark emotion dataset. Different types of phonetic units are employed and compared in terms of accuracy and robustness of emotion recognition within and across datasets and languages. Models of phonemes, broad phonetic classes, and syllables all significantly outperform the utterance model, demonstrating that phonetic units are helpful and should be incorporated in speech emotion recognition. The best performance is from using broad phonetic classes. Further research is needed to investigate the optimal set of broad phonetic classes for the task of emotion recognition. Finally, we found that Wav2vec 2.0 can be fine-tuned to recognize coarser-grained or larger phonetic units than phonemes, such as broad phonetic classes and syllables.

  

Automatic Speech Recognition using limited vocabulary: A survey

Aug 23, 2021
Jean Louis K. E. Fendji, Diane M. Tala, Blaise O. Yenke, Marcellin Atemkeng

Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is an active field of research due to its huge number of applications and the proliferation of interfaces or computing devices that can support speech processing. But the bulk of applications is based on well-resourced languages that overshadow under-resourced ones. Yet ASR represents an undeniable mean to promote such languages, especially when design human-to-human or human-to-machine systems involving illiterate people. An approach to design an ASR system targeting under-resourced languages is to start with a limited vocabulary. ASR using a limited vocabulary is a subset of the speech recognition problem that focuses on the recognition of a small number of words or sentences. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive view of mechanisms behind ASR systems as well as techniques, tools, projects, recent contributions, and possibly future directions in ASR using a limited vocabulary. This work consequently provides a way to go when designing ASR system using limited vocabulary. Although an emphasis is put on limited vocabulary, most of the tools and techniques reported in this survey applied to ASR systems in general.

* 20 pages, 9 figures, 6 tables, submitted to IEEE ACCESS for possible publication 
  

Leveraging Phone Mask Training for Phonetic-Reduction-Robust E2E Uyghur Speech Recognition

Apr 02, 2022
Guodong Ma, Pengfei Hu, Jian Kang, Shen Huang, Hao Huang

In Uyghur speech, consonant and vowel reduction are often encountered, especially in spontaneous speech with high speech rate, which will cause a degradation of speech recognition performance. To solve this problem, we propose an effective phone mask training method for Conformer-based Uyghur end-to-end (E2E) speech recognition. The idea is to randomly mask off a certain percentage features of phones during model training, which simulates the above verbal phenomena and facilitates E2E model to learn more contextual information. According to experiments, the above issues can be greatly alleviated. In addition, deep investigations are carried out into different units in masking, which shows the effectiveness of our proposed masking unit. We also further study the masking method and optimize filling strategy of phone mask. Finally, compared with Conformer-based E2E baseline without mask training, our model demonstrates about 5.51% relative Word Error Rate (WER) reduction on reading speech and 12.92% on spontaneous speech, respectively. The above approach has also been verified on test-set of open-source data THUYG-20, which shows 20% relative improvements.

* INTERSPEECH 2021 
* Accepted by INTERSPEECH 2021 
  

Deep context: end-to-end contextual speech recognition

Aug 07, 2018
Golan Pundak, Tara N. Sainath, Rohit Prabhavalkar, Anjuli Kannan, Ding Zhao

In automatic speech recognition (ASR) what a user says depends on the particular context she is in. Typically, this context is represented as a set of word n-grams. In this work, we present a novel, all-neural, end-to-end (E2E) ASR sys- tem that utilizes such context. Our approach, which we re- fer to as Contextual Listen, Attend and Spell (CLAS) jointly- optimizes the ASR components along with embeddings of the context n-grams. During inference, the CLAS system can be presented with context phrases which might contain out-of- vocabulary (OOV) terms not seen during training. We com- pare our proposed system to a more traditional contextualiza- tion approach, which performs shallow-fusion between inde- pendently trained LAS and contextual n-gram models during beam search. Across a number of tasks, we find that the pro- posed CLAS system outperforms the baseline method by as much as 68% relative WER, indicating the advantage of joint optimization over individually trained components. Index Terms: speech recognition, sequence-to-sequence models, listen attend and spell, LAS, attention, embedded speech recognition.

  

Hierarchical Multitask Learning for CTC-based Speech Recognition

Jul 17, 2018
Kalpesh Krishna, Shubham Toshniwal, Karen Livescu

Previous work has shown that neural encoder-decoder speech recognition can be improved with hierarchical multitask learning, where auxiliary tasks are added at intermediate layers of a deep encoder. We explore the effect of hierarchical multitask learning in the context of connectionist temporal classification (CTC)-based speech recognition, and investigate several aspects of this approach. Consistent with previous work, we observe performance improvements on telephone conversational speech recognition (specifically the Eval2000 test sets) when training a subword-level CTC model with an auxiliary phone loss at an intermediate layer. We analyze the effects of a number of experimental variables (like interpolation constant and position of the auxiliary loss function), performance in lower-resource settings, and the relationship between pretraining and multitask learning. We observe that the hierarchical multitask approach improves over standard multitask training in our higher-data experiments, while in the low-resource settings standard multitask training works well. The best results are obtained by combining hierarchical multitask learning and pretraining, which improves word error rates by 3.4% absolute on the Eval2000 test sets.

* Submitted to SLT 2018 
  

Improving speech emotion recognition via Transformer-based Predictive Coding through transfer learning

Nov 11, 2018
Zheng Lian, Ya Li, Jianhua Tao, Jian Huang

Speech emotion recognition is an important aspect of human-computer interaction. Prior works propose various transfer learning approaches to deal with limited samples in speech emotion recognition. However, they require labeled data for the source task, which cost much effort to collect them. To solve this problem, we focus on the unsupervised task, predictive coding. Nearly unlimited data for most domains can be utilized. In this paper, we utilize the multi-layer Transformer model for the predictive coding, followed with transfer learning approaches to share knowledge of the pre-trained predictive model for speech emotion recognition. We conduct experiments on IEMOCAP, and experimental results reveal the advantages of the proposed method. Our method reaches 65.03% in the weighted accuracy, which also outperforms some currently advanced approaches.

  

Semi-supervised acoustic model training for speech with code-switching

Oct 23, 2018
Emre Yılmaz, Mitchell McLaren, Henk van den Heuvel, David A. van Leeuwen

In the FAME! project, we aim to develop an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system for Frisian-Dutch code-switching (CS) speech extracted from the archives of a local broadcaster with the ultimate goal of building a spoken document retrieval system. Unlike Dutch, Frisian is a low-resourced language with a very limited amount of manually annotated speech data. In this paper, we describe several automatic annotation approaches to enable using of a large amount of raw bilingual broadcast data for acoustic model training in a semi-supervised setting. Previously, it has been shown that the best-performing ASR system is obtained by two-stage multilingual deep neural network (DNN) training using 11 hours of manually annotated CS speech (reference) data together with speech data from other high-resourced languages. We compare the quality of transcriptions provided by this bilingual ASR system with several other approaches that use a language recognition system for assigning language labels to raw speech segments at the front-end and using monolingual ASR resources for transcription. We further investigate automatic annotation of the speakers appearing in the raw broadcast data by first labeling with (pseudo) speaker tags using a speaker diarization system and then linking to the known speakers appearing in the reference data using a speaker recognition system. These speaker labels are essential for speaker-adaptive training in the proposed setting. We train acoustic models using the manually and automatically annotated data and run recognition experiments on the development and test data of the FAME! speech corpus to quantify the quality of the automatic annotations. The ASR and CS detection results demonstrate the potential of using automatic language and speaker tagging in semi-supervised bilingual acoustic model training.

* To appear in Speech Communication - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.specom.2018.10.006 
  

Adversarial Data Augmentation for Disordered Speech Recognition

Aug 02, 2021
Zengrui Jin, Mengzhe Geng, Xurong Xie, Jianwei Yu, Shansong Liu, Xunying Liu, Helen Meng

Automatic recognition of disordered speech remains a highly challenging task to date. The underlying neuro-motor conditions, often compounded with co-occurring physical disabilities, lead to the difficulty in collecting large quantities of impaired speech required for ASR system development. To this end, data augmentation techniques play a vital role in current disordered speech recognition systems. In contrast to existing data augmentation techniques only modifying the speaking rate or overall shape of spectral contour, fine-grained spectro-temporal differences between disordered and normal speech are modelled using deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (DCGAN) during data augmentation to modify normal speech spectra into those closer to disordered speech. Experiments conducted on the UASpeech corpus suggest the proposed adversarial data augmentation approach consistently outperformed the baseline augmentation methods using tempo or speed perturbation on a state-of-the-art hybrid DNN system. An overall word error rate (WER) reduction up to 3.05\% (9.7\% relative) was obtained over the baseline system using no data augmentation. The final learning hidden unit contribution (LHUC) speaker adapted system using the best adversarial augmentation approach gives an overall WER of 25.89% on the UASpeech test set of 16 dysarthric speakers.

* 5 pages, 3 figures, INTERSPEECH 2021 
  

An Overview of Hindi Speech Recognition

May 09, 2013
Neema Mishra, Urmila Shrawankar, V M Thakare

In this age of information technology, information access in a convenient manner has gained importance. Since speech is a primary mode of communication among human beings, it is natural for people to expect to be able to carry out spoken dialogue with computer. Speech recognition system permits ordinary people to speak to the computer to retrieve information. It is desirable to have a human computer dialogue in local language. Hindi being the most widely spoken Language in India is the natural primary human language candidate for human machine interaction. There are five pairs of vowels in Hindi languages; one member is longer than the other one. This paper describes an overview of speech recognition system that includes how speech is produced and the properties and characteristics of Hindi Phoneme.

* Pages: 05 Figures : 04 Tables : 03 Proceedings of the International Conference ICCSCT 2010, Tirunelveli, India 
  

Two-Staged Acoustic Modeling Adaption for Robust Speech Recognition by the Example of German Oral History Interviews

Aug 19, 2019
Michael Gref, Christoph Schmidt, Sven Behnke, Joachim Köhler

In automatic speech recognition, often little training data is available for specific challenging tasks, but training of state-of-the-art automatic speech recognition systems requires large amounts of annotated speech. To address this issue, we propose a two-staged approach to acoustic modeling that combines noise and reverberation data augmentation with transfer learning to robustly address challenges such as difficult acoustic recording conditions, spontaneous speech, and speech of elderly people. We evaluate our approach using the example of German oral history interviews, where a relative average reduction of the word error rate by 19.3% is achieved.

* IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), Shanghai, China, July 2019 
* Accepted for IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), Shanghai, China, July 2019 
  
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