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"speech recognition": models, code, and papers

Personalized Adversarial Data Augmentation for Dysarthric and Elderly Speech Recognition

May 17, 2022
Zengrui Jin, Mengzhe Geng, Jiajun Deng, Tianzi Wang, Shujie Hu, Guinan Li, Xunying Liu

Despite the rapid progress of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technologies targeting normal speech, accurate recognition of dysarthric and elderly speech remains highly challenging tasks to date. It is difficult to collect large quantities of such data for ASR system development due to the mobility issues often found among these users. To this end, data augmentation techniques play a vital role. In contrast to existing data augmentation techniques only modifying the speaking rate or overall shape of spectral contour, fine-grained spectro-temporal differences between dysarthric, elderly and normal speech are modelled using a novel set of speaker dependent (SD) generative adversarial networks (GAN) based data augmentation approaches in this paper. These flexibly allow both: a) temporal or speed perturbed normal speech spectra to be modified and closer to those of an impaired speaker when parallel speech data is available; and b) for non-parallel data, the SVD decomposed normal speech spectral basis features to be transformed into those of a target elderly speaker before being re-composed with the temporal bases to produce the augmented data for state-of-the-art TDNN and Conformer ASR system training. Experiments are conducted on four tasks: the English UASpeech and TORGO dysarthric speech corpora; the English DementiaBank Pitt and Cantonese JCCOCC MoCA elderly speech datasets. The proposed GAN based data augmentation approaches consistently outperform the baseline speed perturbation method by up to 0.91% and 3.0% absolute (9.61% and 6.4% relative) WER reduction on the TORGO and DementiaBank data respectively. Consistent performance improvements are retained after applying LHUC based speaker adaptation.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2202.10290 
  

Improving Pseudo-label Training For End-to-end Speech Recognition Using Gradient Mask

Oct 08, 2021
Shaoshi Ling, Chen Shen, Meng Cai, Zejun Ma

In the recent trend of semi-supervised speech recognition, both self-supervised representation learning and pseudo-labeling have shown promising results. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to combine their ideas for end-to-end speech recognition model. Without any extra loss function, we utilize the Gradient Mask to optimize the model when training on pseudo-label. This method forces the speech recognition model to predict from the masked input to learn strong acoustic representation and make training robust to label noise. In our semi-supervised experiments, the method can improve the model performance when training on pseudo-label and our method achieved competitive results comparing with other semi-supervised approaches on the Librispeech 100 hours experiments.

  

Do We Still Need Automatic Speech Recognition for Spoken Language Understanding?

Nov 29, 2021
Lasse Borgholt, Jakob Drachmann Havtorn, Mostafa Abdou, Joakim Edin, Lars Maaløe, Anders Søgaard, Christian Igel

Spoken language understanding (SLU) tasks are usually solved by first transcribing an utterance with automatic speech recognition (ASR) and then feeding the output to a text-based model. Recent advances in self-supervised representation learning for speech data have focused on improving the ASR component. We investigate whether representation learning for speech has matured enough to replace ASR in SLU. We compare learned speech features from wav2vec 2.0, state-of-the-art ASR transcripts, and the ground truth text as input for a novel speech-based named entity recognition task, a cardiac arrest detection task on real-world emergency calls and two existing SLU benchmarks. We show that learned speech features are superior to ASR transcripts on three classification tasks. For machine translation, ASR transcripts are still the better choice. We highlight the intrinsic robustness of wav2vec 2.0 representations to out-of-vocabulary words as key to better performance.

* Under review as a conference paper at ICASSP 2022 
  

Breaking the Data Barrier: Towards Robust Speech Translation via Adversarial Stability Training

Oct 28, 2019
Qiao Cheng, Meiyuan Fang, Yaqian Han, Jin Huang, Yitao Duan

In a pipeline speech translation system, automatic speech recognition (ASR) system will transmit errors in recognition to the downstream machine translation (MT) system. A standard machine translation system is usually trained on parallel corpus composed of clean text and will perform poorly on text with recognition noise, a gap well known in speech translation community. In this paper, we propose a training architecture which aims at making a neural machine translation model more robust against speech recognition errors. Our approach addresses the encoder and the decoder simultaneously using adversarial learning and data augmentation, respectively. Experimental results on IWSLT2018 speech translation task show that our approach can bridge the gap between the ASR output and the MT input, outperforms the baseline by up to 2.83 BLEU on noisy ASR output, while maintaining close performance on clean text.

* Accepted at the 16th International Workshop on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2019) 
  

Why does Self-Supervised Learning for Speech Recognition Benefit Speaker Recognition?

Apr 27, 2022
Sanyuan Chen, Yu Wu, Chengyi Wang, Shujie Liu, Zhuo Chen, Peidong Wang, Gang Liu, Jinyu Li, Jian Wu, Xiangzhan Yu, Furu Wei

Recently, self-supervised learning (SSL) has demonstrated strong performance in speaker recognition, even if the pre-training objective is designed for speech recognition. In this paper, we study which factor leads to the success of self-supervised learning on speaker-related tasks, e.g. speaker verification (SV), through a series of carefully designed experiments. Our empirical results on the Voxceleb-1 dataset suggest that the benefit of SSL to SV task is from a combination of mask speech prediction loss, data scale, and model size, while the SSL quantizer has a minor impact. We further employ the integrated gradients attribution method and loss landscape visualization to understand the effectiveness of self-supervised learning for speaker recognition performance.

* Submitted to INTERSPEECH 2022 
  

CNN-based MultiChannel End-to-End Speech Recognition for everyday home environments

Nov 07, 2018
Nelson Yalta, Shinji Watanabe, Takaaki Hori, Kazuhiro Nakadai, Tetsuya Ogata

Casual conversations involving multiple speakers and noises from surrounding devices are part of everyday environments and pose challenges for automatic speech recognition systems. These challenges in speech recognition are target for the CHiME-5 challenge. In the present study, an attempt is made to overcome these challenges by employing a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based multichannel end-to-end speech recognition system. The system comprises an attention-based encoder-decoder neural network that directly generates a text as an output from a sound input. The mulitchannel CNN encoder, which uses residual connections and batch renormalization, is trained with augmented data, including white noise injection. The experimental results show that the word error rate (WER) was reduced by 11.9% absolute from the end-to-end baseline.

* 5 pages, 1 figure 
  

Streaming end-to-end multi-talker speech recognition

Nov 26, 2020
Liang Lu, Naoyuki Kanda, Jinyu Li, Yifan Gong

End-to-end multi-talker speech recognition is an emerging research trend in the speech community due to its vast potential in applications such as conversation and meeting transcriptions. To the best of our knowledge, all existing research works are constrained in the offline scenario. In this work, we propose the Streaming Unmixing and Recognition Transducer (SURT) for end-to-end multi-talker speech recognition. Our model employs the Recurrent Neural Network Transducer as the backbone that can meet various latency constraints. We study two different model architectures that are based on a speaker-differentiator encoder and a mask encoder respectively. To train this model, we investigate the widely used Permutation Invariant Training (PIT) approach and the recently introduced Heuristic Error Assignment Training (HEAT) approach. Based on experiments on the publicly available LibriSpeechMix dataset, we show that HEAT can achieve better accuracy compared with PIT, and the SURT model with 120 milliseconds algorithmic latency constraint compares favorably with the offline sequence-to-sequence based baseline model in terms of accuracy.

* 5 pages, 4 figures 
  
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