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"speech recognition": models, code, and papers

Long-span language modeling for speech recognition

Nov 11, 2019
Sarangarajan Parthasarathy, William Gale, Xie Chen, George Polovets, Shuangyu Chang

We explore neural language modeling for speech recognition where the context spans multiple sentences. Rather than encode history beyond the current sentence using a cache of words or document-level features, we focus our study on the ability of LSTM and Transformer language models to implicitly learn to carry over context across sentence boundaries. We introduce a new architecture that incorporates an attention mechanism into LSTM to combine the benefits of recurrent and attention architectures. We conduct language modeling and speech recognition experiments on the publicly available LibriSpeech corpus. We show that conventional training on a paragraph-level corpus results in significant reductions in perplexity compared to training on a sentence-level corpus. We also describe speech recognition experiments using long-span language models in second-pass re-ranking, and provide insights into the ability of such models to take advantage of context beyond the current sentence.


Investigating the Lombard Effect Influence on End-to-End Audio-Visual Speech Recognition

Jul 09, 2019
Pingchuan Ma, Stavros Petridis, Maja Pantic

Several audio-visual speech recognition models have been recently proposed which aim to improve the robustness over audio-only models in the presence of noise. However, almost all of them ignore the impact of the Lombard effect, i.e., the change in speaking style in noisy environments which aims to make speech more intelligible and affects both the acoustic characteristics of speech and the lip movements. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the Lombard effect in audio-visual speech recognition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work which does so using end-to-end deep architectures and presents results on unseen speakers. Our results show that properly modelling Lombard speech is always beneficial. Even if a relatively small amount of Lombard speech is added to the training set then the performance in a real scenario, where noisy Lombard speech is present, can be significantly improved. We also show that the standard approach followed in the literature, where a model is trained and tested on noisy plain speech, provides a correct estimate of the video-only performance and slightly underestimates the audio-visual performance. In case of audio-only approaches, performance is overestimated for SNRs higher than -3dB and underestimated for lower SNRs.

* Accepted for publication at Interspeech 2019 

Interactive Feature Fusion for End-to-End Noise-Robust Speech Recognition

Oct 11, 2021
Yuchen Hu, Nana Hou, Chen Chen, Eng Siong Chng

Speech enhancement (SE) aims to suppress the additive noise from a noisy speech signal to improve the speech's perceptual quality and intelligibility. However, the over-suppression phenomenon in the enhanced speech might degrade the performance of downstream automatic speech recognition (ASR) task due to the missing latent information. To alleviate such problem, we propose an interactive feature fusion network (IFF-Net) for noise-robust speech recognition to learn complementary information from the enhanced feature and original noisy feature. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves absolute word error rate (WER) reduction of 4.1% over the best baseline on RATS Channel-A corpus. Our further analysis indicates that the proposed IFF-Net can complement some missing information in the over-suppressed enhanced feature.

* 5 pages, 7 figures, Submitted to ICASSP 2022 

AISHELL-1: An Open-Source Mandarin Speech Corpus and A Speech Recognition Baseline

Sep 16, 2017
Hui Bu, Jiayu Du, Xingyu Na, Bengu Wu, Hao Zheng

An open-source Mandarin speech corpus called AISHELL-1 is released. It is by far the largest corpus which is suitable for conducting the speech recognition research and building speech recognition systems for Mandarin. The recording procedure, including audio capturing devices and environments are presented in details. The preparation of the related resources, including transcriptions and lexicon are described. The corpus is released with a Kaldi recipe. Experimental results implies that the quality of audio recordings and transcriptions are promising.

* Oriental COCOSDA 2017 

Application of Kullback-Leibler Metric to Speech Recognition

Oct 13, 2003
Igor Bocharov, Pavel Lukin

Article discusses the application of Kullback-Leibler divergence to the recognition of speech signals and suggests three algorithms implementing this divergence criterion: correlation algorithm, spectral algorithm and filter algorithm. Discussion covers an approach to the problem of speech variability and is illustrated with the results of experimental modeling of speech signals. The article gives a number of recommendations on the choice of appropriate model parameters and provides a comparison to some other methods of speech recognition.

* 10 pages, 4 figures, Word to PDF auto converted 

Isolated and Ensemble Audio Preprocessing Methods for Detecting Adversarial Examples against Automatic Speech Recognition

Sep 11, 2018
Krishan Rajaratnam, Kunal Shah, Jugal Kalita

An adversarial attack is an exploitative process in which minute alterations are made to natural inputs, causing the inputs to be misclassified by neural models. In the field of speech recognition, this has become an issue of increasing significance. Although adversarial attacks were originally introduced in computer vision, they have since infiltrated the realm of speech recognition. In 2017, a genetic attack was shown to be quite potent against the Speech Commands Model. Limited-vocabulary speech classifiers, such as the Speech Commands Model, are used in a variety of applications, particularly in telephony; as such, adversarial examples produced by this attack pose as a major security threat. This paper explores various methods of detecting these adversarial examples with combinations of audio preprocessing. One particular combined defense incorporating compressions, speech coding, filtering, and audio panning was shown to be quite effective against the attack on the Speech Commands Model, detecting audio adversarial examples with 93.5% precision and 91.2% recall.

* Accepted for oral presentation at the 30th Conference on Computational Linguistics and Speech Processing (ROCLING 2018) 

Learning Robust and Multilingual Speech Representations

Jan 29, 2020
Kazuya Kawakami, Luyu Wang, Chris Dyer, Phil Blunsom, Aaron van den Oord

Unsupervised speech representation learning has shown remarkable success at finding representations that correlate with phonetic structures and improve downstream speech recognition performance. However, most research has been focused on evaluating the representations in terms of their ability to improve the performance of speech recognition systems on read English (e.g. Wall Street Journal and LibriSpeech). This evaluation methodology overlooks two important desiderata that speech representations should have: robustness to domain shifts and transferability to other languages. In this paper we learn representations from up to 8000 hours of diverse and noisy speech data and evaluate the representations by looking at their robustness to domain shifts and their ability to improve recognition performance in many languages. We find that our representations confer significant robustness advantages to the resulting recognition systems: we see significant improvements in out-of-domain transfer relative to baseline feature sets and the features likewise provide improvements in 25 phonetically diverse languages including tonal languages and low-resource languages.