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"photo": models, code, and papers

FDMA-CDMA Mode CAOS Camera Demonstration using UV to NIR Full Spectrum

Jan 06, 2021
Nabeel A. Riza, Mohsin A. Mazhar

For the first time, the hybrid Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) mode of the CAOS (i.e., Coded Access Optical Sensor) camera is demonstrated. The FDMA CDMA mode is a time frequency double signal encoding design for robust and faster linear High Dynamic Range (HDR) image irradiance extraction. Specifically, it simultaneously combines the strength of the FDMA-mode linear HDR Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Digital Signal Processing (DSP) based spectrum analysis with the CDMA mode provided many simultaneous CAOS pixels high Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) photo-detection. The FDMA CDMA mode with P FDMA channels provides a faster camera operation versus the linear HDR Frequency Modulation (FM) CDMA mode. Visible band imaging experiments using a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) based CAOS camera demonstrate a P equal to 4 channels FDMA CDMA mode high quality image recovery of a calibrated 64 dB 6 patches HDR target versus the CDMA and FM CDMA CAOS modes that limit dynamic range and speed, respectively. Simultaneous dual image capture capability of the FDMA-CDMA mode is also demonstrated for the first time in Ultraviolet (UV) to Near Infrared (NIR) 350 to 1800 nm full spectrum using Silicon (Si) and Germanium (Ge) point photo-detectors.

* 4 pages 

SHREC 2020 track: 6D Object Pose Estimation

Oct 19, 2020
Honglin Yuan, Remco C. Veltkamp, Georgios Albanis, Nikolaos Zioulis, Dimitrios Zarpalas, Petros Daras

6D pose estimation is crucial for augmented reality, virtual reality, robotic manipulation and visual navigation. However, the problem is challenging due to the variety of objects in the real world. They have varying 3D shape and their appearances in captured images are affected by sensor noise, changing lighting conditions and occlusions between objects. Different pose estimation methods have different strengths and weaknesses, depending on feature representations and scene contents. At the same time, existing 3D datasets that are used for data-driven methods to estimate 6D poses have limited view angles and low resolution. To address these issues, we organize the Shape Retrieval Challenge benchmark on 6D pose estimation and create a physically accurate simulator that is able to generate photo-realistic color-and-depth image pairs with corresponding ground truth 6D poses. From captured color and depth images, we use this simulator to generate a 3D dataset which has 400 photo-realistic synthesized color-and-depth image pairs with various view angles for training, and another 100 captured and synthetic images for testing. Five research groups register in this track and two of them submitted their results. Data-driven methods are the current trend in 6D object pose estimation and our evaluation results show that approaches which fully exploit the color and geometric features are more robust for 6D pose estimation of reflective and texture-less objects and occlusion. This benchmark and comparative evaluation results have the potential to further enrich and boost the research of 6D object pose estimation and its applications.

* Eurographics Workshop on 3D Object Retrieval (2020) 

A Data-Driven Approach for Tag Refinement and Localization in Web Videos

May 28, 2015
Lamberto Ballan, Marco Bertini, Giuseppe Serra, Alberto Del Bimbo

Tagging of visual content is becoming more and more widespread as web-based services and social networks have popularized tagging functionalities among their users. These user-generated tags are used to ease browsing and exploration of media collections, e.g. using tag clouds, or to retrieve multimedia content. However, not all media are equally tagged by users. Using the current systems is easy to tag a single photo, and even tagging a part of a photo, like a face, has become common in sites like Flickr and Facebook. On the other hand, tagging a video sequence is more complicated and time consuming, so that users just tag the overall content of a video. In this paper we present a method for automatic video annotation that increases the number of tags originally provided by users, and localizes them temporally, associating tags to keyframes. Our approach exploits collective knowledge embedded in user-generated tags and web sources, and visual similarity of keyframes and images uploaded to social sites like YouTube and Flickr, as well as web sources like Google and Bing. Given a keyframe, our method is able to select on the fly from these visual sources the training exemplars that should be the most relevant for this test sample, and proceeds to transfer labels across similar images. Compared to existing video tagging approaches that require training classifiers for each tag, our system has few parameters, is easy to implement and can deal with an open vocabulary scenario. We demonstrate the approach on tag refinement and localization on DUT-WEBV, a large dataset of web videos, and show state-of-the-art results.

* Preprint submitted to Computer Vision and Image Understanding (CVIU) 

ComicGAN: Text-to-Comic Generative Adversarial Network

Sep 19, 2021
Ben Proven-Bessel, Zilong Zhao, Lydia Chen

Drawing and annotating comic illustrations is a complex and difficult process. No existing machine learning algorithms have been developed to create comic illustrations based on descriptions of illustrations, or the dialogue in comics. Moreover, it is not known if a generative adversarial network (GAN) can generate original comics that correspond to the dialogue and/or descriptions. GANs are successful in producing photo-realistic images, but this technology does not necessarily translate to generation of flawless comics. What is more, comic evaluation is a prominent challenge as common metrics such as Inception Score will not perform comparably, as they are designed to work on photos. In this paper: 1. We implement ComicGAN, a novel text-to-comic pipeline based on a text-to-image GAN that synthesizes comics according to text descriptions. 2. We describe an in-depth empirical study of the technical difficulties of comic generation using GAN's. ComicGAN has two novel features: (i) text description creation from labels via permutation and augmentation, and (ii) custom image encoding with Convolutional Neural Networks. We extensively evaluate the proposed ComicGAN in two scenarios, namely image generation from descriptions, and image generation from dialogue. Our results on 1000 Dilbert comic panels and 6000 descriptions show synthetic comic panels from text inputs resemble original Dilbert panels. Novel methods for text description creation and custom image encoding brought improvements to Frechet Inception Distance, detail, and overall image quality over baseline algorithms. Generating illustrations from descriptions provided clear comics including characters and colours that were specified in the descriptions.


Pragmatic Image Compression for Human-in-the-Loop Decision-Making

Jul 07, 2021
Siddharth Reddy, Anca D. Dragan, Sergey Levine

Standard lossy image compression algorithms aim to preserve an image's appearance, while minimizing the number of bits needed to transmit it. However, the amount of information actually needed by a user for downstream tasks -- e.g., deciding which product to click on in a shopping website -- is likely much lower. To achieve this lower bitrate, we would ideally only transmit the visual features that drive user behavior, while discarding details irrelevant to the user's decisions. We approach this problem by training a compression model through human-in-the-loop learning as the user performs tasks with the compressed images. The key insight is to train the model to produce a compressed image that induces the user to take the same action that they would have taken had they seen the original image. To approximate the loss function for this model, we train a discriminator that tries to distinguish whether a user's action was taken in response to the compressed image or the original. We evaluate our method through experiments with human participants on four tasks: reading handwritten digits, verifying photos of faces, browsing an online shopping catalogue, and playing a car racing video game. The results show that our method learns to match the user's actions with and without compression at lower bitrates than baseline methods, and adapts the compression model to the user's behavior: it preserves the digit number and randomizes handwriting style in the digit reading task, preserves hats and eyeglasses while randomizing faces in the photo verification task, preserves the perceived price of an item while randomizing its color and background in the online shopping task, and preserves upcoming bends in the road in the car racing game.


A Deep-Learning-Based Fashion Attributes Detection Model

Oct 24, 2018
Menglin Jia, Yichen Zhou, Mengyun Shi, Bharath Hariharan

Analyzing fashion attributes is essential in the fashion design process. Current fashion forecasting firms, such as WGSN utilizes information from all around the world (from fashion shows, visual merchandising, blogs, etc). They gather information by experience, by observation, by media scan, by interviews, and by exposed to new things. Such information analyzing process is called abstracting, which recognize similarities or differences across all the garments and collections. In fact, such abstraction ability is useful in many fashion careers with different purposes. Fashion forecasters abstract across design collections and across time to identify fashion change and directions; designers, product developers and buyers abstract across a group of garments and collections to develop a cohesive and visually appeal lines; sales and marketing executives abstract across product line each season to recognize selling points; fashion journalist and bloggers abstract across runway photos to recognize symbolic core concepts that can be translated into editorial features. Fashion attributes analysis for such fashion insiders requires much detailed and in-depth attributes annotation than that for consumers, and requires inference on multiple domains. In this project, we propose a data-driven approach for recognizing fashion attributes. Specifically, a modified version of Faster R-CNN model is trained on images from a large-scale localization dataset with 594 fine-grained attributes under different scenarios, for example in online stores and street snapshots. This model will then be used to detect garment items and classify clothing attributes for runway photos and fashion illustrations.


Distinguishing Natural and Computer-Generated Images using Multi-Colorspace fused EfficientNet

Oct 18, 2021
Manjary P Gangan, Anoop K, Lajish V L

The problem of distinguishing natural images from photo-realistic computer-generated ones either addresses natural images versus computer graphics or natural images versus GAN images, at a time. But in a real-world image forensic scenario, it is highly essential to consider all categories of image generation, since in most cases image generation is unknown. We, for the first time, to our best knowledge, approach the problem of distinguishing natural images from photo-realistic computer-generated images as a three-class classification task classifying natural, computer graphics, and GAN images. For the task, we propose a Multi-Colorspace fused EfficientNet model by parallelly fusing three EfficientNet networks that follow transfer learning methodology where each network operates in different colorspaces, RGB, LCH, and HSV, chosen after analyzing the efficacy of various colorspace transformations in this image forensics problem. Our model outperforms the baselines in terms of accuracy, robustness towards post-processing, and generalizability towards other datasets. We conduct psychophysics experiments to understand how accurately humans can distinguish natural, computer graphics, and GAN images where we could observe that humans find difficulty in classifying these images, particularly the computer-generated images, indicating the necessity of computational algorithms for the task. We also analyze the behavior of our model through visual explanations to understand salient regions that contribute to the model's decision making and compare with manual explanations provided by human participants in the form of region markings, where we could observe similarities in both the explanations indicating the powerful nature of our model to take the decisions meaningfully.

* 13 pages 

IdentityDP: Differential Private Identification Protection for Face Images

Mar 02, 2021
Yunqian Wen, Li Song, Bo Liu, Ming Ding, Rong Xie

Because of the explosive growth of face photos as well as their widespread dissemination and easy accessibility in social media, the security and privacy of personal identity information becomes an unprecedented challenge. Meanwhile, the convenience brought by advanced identity-agnostic computer vision technologies is attractive. Therefore, it is important to use face images while taking careful consideration in protecting people's identities. Given a face image, face de-identification, also known as face anonymization, refers to generating another image with similar appearance and the same background, while the real identity is hidden. Although extensive efforts have been made, existing face de-identification techniques are either insufficient in photo-reality or incapable of well-balancing privacy and utility. In this paper, we focus on tackling these challenges to improve face de-identification. We propose IdentityDP, a face anonymization framework that combines a data-driven deep neural network with a differential privacy (DP) mechanism. This framework encompasses three stages: facial representations disentanglement, $\epsilon$-IdentityDP perturbation and image reconstruction. Our model can effectively obfuscate the identity-related information of faces, preserve significant visual similarity, and generate high-quality images that can be used for identity-agnostic computer vision tasks, such as detection, tracking, etc. Different from the previous methods, we can adjust the balance of privacy and utility through the privacy budget according to pratical demands and provide a diversity of results without pre-annotations. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and generalization ability of our proposed anonymization framework.


DVG-Face: Dual Variational Generation for Heterogeneous Face Recognition

Sep 20, 2020
Chaoyou Fu, Xiang Wu, Yibo Hu, Huaibo Huang, Ran He

Heterogeneous Face Recognition (HFR) refers to matching cross-domain faces, playing a crucial role in public security. Nevertheless, HFR is confronted with the challenges from large domain discrepancy and insufficient heterogeneous data. In this paper, we formulate HFR as a dual generation problem, and tackle it via a novel Dual Variational Generation (DVG-Face) framework. Specifically, a dual variational generator is elaborately designed to learn the joint distribution of paired heterogeneous images. However, the small-scale paired heterogeneous training data may limit the identity diversity of sampling. With this in mind, we propose to integrate abundant identity information of large-scale VIS images into the joint distribution. Furthermore, a pairwise identity preserving loss is imposed on the generated paired heterogeneous images to ensure their identity consistency. As a consequence, massive new diverse paired heterogeneous images with the same identity can be generated from noises. The identity consistency and diversity properties allow us to employ these generated images to train the HFR network via a contrastive learning mechanism, yielding both domain invariant and discriminative embedding features. Concretely, the generated paired heterogeneous images are regarded as positive pairs, and the images obtained from different samplings are considered as negative pairs. Our method achieves superior performances over state-of-the-art methods on seven databases belonging to five HFR tasks, including NIR-VIS, Sketch-Photo, Profile-Frontal Photo, Thermal-VIS, and ID-Camera. The related code will be released at


GLStyleNet: Higher Quality Style Transfer Combining Global and Local Pyramid Features

Nov 18, 2018
Zhizhong Wang, Lei Zhao, Wei Xing, Dongming Lu

Recent studies using deep neural networks have shown remarkable success in style transfer especially for artistic and photo-realistic images. However, the approaches using global feature correlations fail to capture small, intricate textures and maintain correct texture scales of the artworks, and the approaches based on local patches are defective on global effect. In this paper, we present a novel feature pyramid fusion neural network, dubbed GLStyleNet, which sufficiently takes into consideration multi-scale and multi-level pyramid features by best aggregating layers across a VGG network, and performs style transfer hierarchically with multiple losses of different scales. Our proposed method retains high-frequency pixel information and low frequency construct information of images from two aspects: loss function constraint and feature fusion. Our approach is not only flexible to adjust the trade-off between content and style, but also controllable between global and local. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, our method can transfer not just large-scale, obvious style cues but also subtle, exquisite ones, and dramatically improves the quality of style transfer. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on portrait style transfer, artistic style transfer, photo-realistic style transfer and Chinese ancient painting style transfer tasks. Experimental results indicate that our unified approach improves image style transfer quality over previous state-of-the-art methods, while also accelerating the whole process in a certain extent. Our code is available at