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"photo": models, code, and papers

A Multimodal Approach to Predict Social Media Popularity

Jul 16, 2018
Mayank Meghawat, Satyendra Yadav, Debanjan Mahata, Yifang Yin, Rajiv Ratn Shah, Roger Zimmermann

Multiple modalities represent different aspects by which information is conveyed by a data source. Modern day social media platforms are one of the primary sources of multimodal data, where users use different modes of expression by posting textual as well as multimedia content such as images and videos for sharing information. Multimodal information embedded in such posts could be useful in predicting their popularity. To the best of our knowledge, no such multimodal dataset exists for the prediction of social media photos. In this work, we propose a multimodal dataset consisiting of content, context, and social information for popularity prediction. Specifically, we augment the SMPT1 dataset for social media prediction in ACM Multimedia grand challenge 2017 with image content, titles, descriptions, and tags. Next, in this paper, we propose a multimodal approach which exploits visual features (i.e., content information), textual features (i.e., contextual information), and social features (e.g., average views and group counts) to predict popularity of social media photos in terms of view counts. Experimental results confirm that despite our multimodal approach uses the half of the training dataset from SMP-T1, it achieves comparable performance with that of state-of-the-art.

* Preprint version for paper accepted in Proceedings of 1st IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Information Processing and Retrieval 

Synthesizing Training Images for Boosting Human 3D Pose Estimation

Jan 05, 2017
Wenzheng Chen, Huan Wang, Yangyan Li, Hao Su, Zhenhua Wang, Changhe Tu, Dani Lischinski, Daniel Cohen-Or, Baoquan Chen

Human 3D pose estimation from a single image is a challenging task with numerous applications. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have recently achieved superior performance on the task of 2D pose estimation from a single image, by training on images with 2D annotations collected by crowd sourcing. This suggests that similar success could be achieved for direct estimation of 3D poses. However, 3D poses are much harder to annotate, and the lack of suitable annotated training images hinders attempts towards end-to-end solutions. To address this issue, we opt to automatically synthesize training images with ground truth pose annotations. Our work is a systematic study along this road. We find that pose space coverage and texture diversity are the key ingredients for the effectiveness of synthetic training data. We present a fully automatic, scalable approach that samples the human pose space for guiding the synthesis procedure and extracts clothing textures from real images. Furthermore, we explore domain adaptation for bridging the gap between our synthetic training images and real testing photos. We demonstrate that CNNs trained with our synthetic images out-perform those trained with real photos on 3D pose estimation tasks.


Photometric Multi-View Mesh Refinement for High-Resolution Satellite Images

May 12, 2020
Mathias Rothermel, Ke Gong, Dieter Fritsch, Konrad Schindler, Norbert Haala

Modern high-resolution satellite sensors collect optical imagery with ground sampling distances (GSDs) of 30-50cm, which has sparked a renewed interest in photogrammetric 3D surface reconstruction from satellite data. State-of-the-art reconstruction methods typically generate 2.5D elevation data. Here, we present an approach to recover full 3D surface meshes from multi-view satellite imagery. The proposed method takes as input a coarse initial mesh and refines it by iteratively updating all vertex positions to maximize the photo-consistency between images. Photo-consistency is measured in image space, by transferring texture from one image to another via the surface. We derive the equations to propagate changes in texture similarity through the rational function model (RFM), often also referred to as rational polynomial coefficient (RPC) model. Furthermore, we devise a hierarchical scheme to optimize the surface with gradient descent. In experiments with two different datasets, we show that the refinement improves the initial digital elevation models (DEMs) generated with conventional dense image matching. Moreover, we demonstrate that our method is able to reconstruct true 3D geometry, such as facade structures, if off-nadir views are available.

* Accepted for publication in ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 

Composition-Aware Image Aesthetics Assessment

Jul 25, 2019
Dong Liu, Rohit Puri, Nagendra Kamath, Subhabrata Bhattachary

Automatic image aesthetics assessment is important for a wide variety of applications such as on-line photo suggestion, photo album management and image retrieval. Previous methods have focused on mapping the holistic image content to a high or low aesthetics rating. However, the composition information of an image characterizes the harmony of its visual elements according to the principles of art, and provides richer information for learning aesthetics. In this work, we propose to model the image composition information as the mutual dependency of its local regions, and design a novel architecture to leverage such information to boost the performance of aesthetics assessment. To achieve this, we densely partition an image into local regions and compute aesthetics-preserving features over the regions to characterize the aesthetics properties of image content. With the feature representation of local regions, we build a region composition graph in which each node denotes one region and any two nodes are connected by an edge weighted by the similarity of the region features. We perform reasoning on this graph via graph convolution, in which the activation of each node is determined by its highly correlated neighbors. Our method naturally uncovers the mutual dependency of local regions in the network training procedure, and achieves the state-of-the-art performance on the benchmark visual aesthetics datasets.


Extracting human emotions at different places based on facial expressions and spatial clustering analysis

May 06, 2019
Yuhao Kang, Qingyuan Jia, Song Gao, Xiaohuan Zeng, Yueyao Wang, Stephan Angsuesser, Yu Liu, Xinyue Ye, Teng Fei

The emergence of big data enables us to evaluate the various human emotions at places from a statistic perspective by applying affective computing. In this study, a novel framework for extracting human emotions from large-scale georeferenced photos at different places is proposed. After the construction of places based on spatial clustering of user generated footprints collected in social media websites, online cognitive services are utilized to extract human emotions from facial expressions using the state-of-the-art computer vision techniques. And two happiness metrics are defined for measuring the human emotions at different places. To validate the feasibility of the framework, we take 80 tourist attractions around the world as an example and a happiness ranking list of places is generated based on human emotions calculated over 2 million faces detected out from over 6 million photos. Different kinds of geographical contexts are taken into consideration to find out the relationship between human emotions and environmental factors. Results show that much of the emotional variation at different places can be explained by a few factors such as openness. The research may offer insights on integrating human emotions to enrich the understanding of sense of place in geography and in place-based GIS.

* Transactions in GIS, Year 2019, Volume 23, Issue 3 
* 40 pages; 9 figures 

Ensemble Network for Ranking Images Based on Visual Appeal

Jun 06, 2020
Sachin Singh, Victor Sanchez, Tanaya Guha

We propose a computational framework for ranking images (group photos in particular) taken at the same event within a short time span. The ranking is expected to correspond with human perception of overall appeal of the images. We hypothesize and provide evidence through subjective analysis that the factors that appeal to humans are its emotional content, aesthetics and image quality. We propose a network which is an ensemble of three information channels, each predicting a score corresponding to one of the three visual appeal factors. For group emotion estimation, we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) based architecture for predicting group emotion from images. This new architecture enforces the network to put emphasis on the important regions in the images, and achieves comparable results to the state-of-the-art. Next, we develop a network for the image ranking task that combines group emotion, aesthetics and image quality scores. Owing to the unavailability of suitable databases, we created a new database of manually annotated group photos taken during various social events. We present experimental results on this database and other benchmark databases whenever available. Overall, our experiments show that the proposed framework can reliably predict the overall appeal of images with results closely corresponding to human ranking.


Face-to-Parameter Translation for Game Character Auto-Creation

Sep 03, 2019
Tianyang Shi, Yi Yuan, Changjie Fan, Zhengxia Zou, Zhenwei Shi, Yong Liu

Character customization system is an important component in Role-Playing Games (RPGs), where players are allowed to edit the facial appearance of their in-game characters with their own preferences rather than using default templates. This paper proposes a method for automatically creating in-game characters of players according to an input face photo. We formulate the above "artistic creation" process under a facial similarity measurement and parameter searching paradigm by solving an optimization problem over a large set of physically meaningful facial parameters. To effectively minimize the distance between the created face and the real one, two loss functions, i.e. a "discriminative loss" and a "facial content loss", are specifically designed. As the rendering process of a game engine is not differentiable, a generative network is further introduced as an "imitator" to imitate the physical behavior of the game engine so that the proposed method can be implemented under a neural style transfer framework and the parameters can be optimized by gradient descent. Experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves a high degree of generation similarity between the input face photo and the created in-game character in terms of both global appearance and local details. Our method has been deployed in a new game last year and has now been used by players over 1 million times.

* Accepted by ICCV 2019 

Controllable Image-to-Video Translation: A Case Study on Facial Expression Generation

Aug 09, 2018
Lijie Fan, Wenbing Huang, Chuang Gan, Junzhou Huang, Boqing Gong

The recent advances in deep learning have made it possible to generate photo-realistic images by using neural networks and even to extrapolate video frames from an input video clip. In this paper, for the sake of both furthering this exploration and our own interest in a realistic application, we study image-to-video translation and particularly focus on the videos of facial expressions. This problem challenges the deep neural networks by another temporal dimension comparing to the image-to-image translation. Moreover, its single input image fails most existing video generation methods that rely on recurrent models. We propose a user-controllable approach so as to generate video clips of various lengths from a single face image. The lengths and types of the expressions are controlled by users. To this end, we design a novel neural network architecture that can incorporate the user input into its skip connections and propose several improvements to the adversarial training method for the neural network. Experiments and user studies verify the effectiveness of our approach. Especially, we would like to highlight that even for the face images in the wild (downloaded from the Web and the authors' own photos), our model can generate high-quality facial expression videos of which about 50\% are labeled as real by Amazon Mechanical Turk workers.

* 10 pages 

Learning Subclass Representations for Visually-varied Image Classification

Jan 12, 2016
Xinchao Li, Peng Xu, Yue Shi, Martha Larson, Alan Hanjalic

In this paper, we present a subclass-representation approach that predicts the probability of a social image belonging to one particular class. We explore the co-occurrence of user-contributed tags to find subclasses with a strong connection to the top level class. We then project each image on to the resulting subclass space to generate a subclass representation for the image. The novelty of the approach is that subclass representations make use of not only the content of the photos themselves, but also information on the co-occurrence of their tags, which determines membership in both subclasses and top-level classes. The novelty is also that the images are classified into smaller classes, which have a chance of being more visually stable and easier to model. These subclasses are used as a latent space and images are represented in this space by their probability of relatedness to all of the subclasses. In contrast to approaches directly modeling each top-level class based on the image content, the proposed method can exploit more information for visually diverse classes. The approach is evaluated on a set of $2$ million photos with 10 classes, released by the Multimedia 2013 Yahoo! Large-scale Flickr-tag Image Classification Grand Challenge. Experiments show that the proposed system delivers sound performance for visually diverse classes compared with methods that directly model top classes.


Single Stage Virtual Try-on via Deformable Attention Flows

Jul 19, 2022
Shuai Bai, Huiling Zhou, Zhikang Li, Chang Zhou, Hongxia Yang

Virtual try-on aims to generate a photo-realistic fitting result given an in-shop garment and a reference person image. Existing methods usually build up multi-stage frameworks to deal with clothes warping and body blending respectively, or rely heavily on intermediate parser-based labels which may be noisy or even inaccurate. To solve the above challenges, we propose a single-stage try-on framework by developing a novel Deformable Attention Flow (DAFlow), which applies the deformable attention scheme to multi-flow estimation. With pose keypoints as the guidance only, the self- and cross-deformable attention flows are estimated for the reference person and the garment images, respectively. By sampling multiple flow fields, the feature-level and pixel-level information from different semantic areas are simultaneously extracted and merged through the attention mechanism. It enables clothes warping and body synthesizing at the same time which leads to photo-realistic results in an end-to-end manner. Extensive experiments on two try-on datasets demonstrate that our proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, additional experiments on the other two image editing tasks illustrate the versatility of our method for multi-view synthesis and image animation.

* ECCV 2022