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"photo": models, code, and papers

Theme Aware Aesthetic Distribution Prediction with Full Resolution Photos

Aug 04, 2019
Gengyun Jia, Peipei Li, Ran He

Aesthetic quality assessment (AQA) of photos is a challenging task due to the subjective and diverse factors in human assessment process. Nowadays, it is common to tackle AQA with deep neural networks (DNNs) for their superior performance on modeling such complex relations. However, traditional DNNs require fix-sized inputs, and resizing various inputs to a uniform size may significantly change their aesthetic features. Such transformations lead to the mismatches between photos and their aesthetic evaluations. Existing methods usually adopt two solutions for it. Some methods directly crop fix-sized patches from the inputs. The others alternately capture the aesthetic features from pre-defined multi-size inputs by inserting adaptive pooling or removing fully connected layers. However, the former destroys the global structures and layout information, which are crucial in most situations. The latter has to resize images into several pre-defined sizes, which is not enough to reflect the diversity of image sizes, and the aesthetic features are still destroyed. To address this issue, we propose a simple and effective method that can handle the arbitrary sizes of batch inputs to achieve AQA on the full resolution images by combining image padding with ROI (region of interest) pooling. Padding keeps inputs of the same size, while ROI pooling cuts off the forward propagation of features on padding regions, thus eliminates the side effects of padding. Besides, we observe that the same image may receive different scores under different themes, which we call the theme criterion bias. However, previous works only focus on the aesthetic features of the images and ignore the criterion bias brought by their themes. In this paper, we introduce the theme information and propose a theme aware model. Extensive experiments prove the effectiveness of the proposed method over the state-of-the-arts.

* 11 pages, 9 figures 
  
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Visual Landmark Recognition from Internet Photo Collections: A Large-Scale Evaluation

Sep 18, 2014
Tobias Weyand, Bastian Leibe

The task of a visual landmark recognition system is to identify photographed buildings or objects in query photos and to provide the user with relevant information on them. With their increasing coverage of the world's landmark buildings and objects, Internet photo collections are now being used as a source for building such systems in a fully automatic fashion. This process typically consists of three steps: clustering large amounts of images by the objects they depict; determining object names from user-provided tags; and building a robust, compact, and efficient recognition index. To this date, however, there is little empirical information on how well current approaches for those steps perform in a large-scale open-set mining and recognition task. Furthermore, there is little empirical information on how recognition performance varies for different types of landmark objects and where there is still potential for improvement. With this paper, we intend to fill these gaps. Using a dataset of 500k images from Paris, we analyze each component of the landmark recognition pipeline in order to answer the following questions: How many and what kinds of objects can be discovered automatically? How can we best use the resulting image clusters to recognize the object in a query? How can the object be efficiently represented in memory for recognition? How reliably can semantic information be extracted? And finally: What are the limiting factors in the resulting pipeline from query to semantics? We evaluate how different choices of methods and parameters for the individual pipeline steps affect overall system performance and examine their effects for different query categories such as buildings, paintings or sculptures.

  
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PoshakNet: Framework for matching dresses from real-life photos using GAN and Siamese Network

Nov 11, 2019
Abhigyan Khaund, Daksh Thapar, Aditya Nigam

Online garment shopping has gained many customers in recent years. Describing a dress using keywords does not always yield the proper results, which in turn leads to dissatisfaction of customers. A visual search based system will be enormously beneficent to the industry. Hence, we propose a framework that can retrieve similar clothes that can be found in an image. The first task is to extract the garment from the input image (street photo). There are various challenges for that, including pose, illumination, and background clutter. We use a Generative Adversarial Network for the task of retrieving the garment that the person in the image was wearing. It has been shown that GAN can retrieve the garment very efficiently despite the challenges of street photos. Finally, a siamese based matching system takes the retrieved cloth image and matches it with the clothes in the dataset, giving us the top k matches. We take a pre-trained inception-ResNet v1 module as a siamese network (trained using triplet loss for face detection) and fine-tune it on the shopping dataset using center loss. The dataset has been collected inhouse. For training the GAN, we use the LookBook dataset, which is publically available.

* Accepted in NCVPRIPG 2019 
  
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Deep Attentive Generative Adversarial Network for Photo-Realistic Image De-Quantization

Apr 07, 2020
Yang Zhang, Changhui Hu, Xiaobo Lu

Most of current display devices are with eight or higher bit-depth. However, the quality of most multimedia tools cannot achieve this bit-depth standard for the generating images. De-quantization can improve the visual quality of low bit-depth image to display on high bit-depth screen. This paper proposes DAGAN algorithm to perform super-resolution on image intensity resolution, which is orthogonal to the spatial resolution, realizing photo-realistic de-quantization via an end-to-end learning pattern. Until now, this is the first attempt to apply Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) framework for image de-quantization. Specifically, we propose the Dense Residual Self-attention (DenseResAtt) module, which is consisted of dense residual blocks armed with self-attention mechanism, to pay more attention on high-frequency information. Moreover, the series connection of sequential DenseResAtt modules forms deep attentive network with superior discriminative learning ability in image de-quantization, modeling representative feature maps to recover as much useful information as possible. In addition, due to the adversarial learning framework can reliably produce high quality natural images, the specified content loss as well as the adversarial loss are back-propagated to optimize the training of model. Above all, DAGAN is able to generate the photo-realistic high bit-depth image without banding artifacts. Experiment results on several public benchmarks prove that the DAGAN algorithm possesses ability to achieve excellent visual effect and satisfied quantitative performance.

  
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Towards Photo-Realistic Visible Watermark Removal with Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks

May 31, 2019
Xiang Li, Chan Lu, Danni Cheng, Wei-Hong Li, Mei Cao, Bo Liu, Jiechao Ma, Wei-Shi Zheng

Visible watermark plays an important role in image copyright protection and the robustness of a visible watermark to an attack is shown to be essential. To evaluate and improve the effectiveness of watermark, watermark removal attracts increasing attention and becomes a hot research top. Current methods cast the watermark removal as an image-to-image translation problem where the encode-decode architectures with pixel-wise loss are adopted to transfer the transparent watermarked pixels into unmarked pixels. However, when a number of realistic images are presented, the watermarks are more likely to be unknown and diverse (i.e., the watermarks might be opaque or semi-transparent; the category and pattern of watermarks are unknown). When applying existing methods to the real-world scenarios, they mostly can not satisfactorily reconstruct the hidden information obscured under the complex and various watermarks (i.e., the residual watermark traces remain and the reconstructed images lack reality). To address this difficulty, in this paper, we present a new watermark processing framework using the conditional generative adversarial networks (cGANs) for visible watermark removal in the real-world application. The proposed method enables the watermark removal solution to be more closed to the photo-realistic reconstruction using a patch-based discriminator conditioned on the watermarked images, which is adversarially trained to differentiate the difference between the recovered images and original watermark-free images. Extensive experimental results on a large-scale visible watermark dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and clearly indicate that our proposed approach can produce more photo-realistic and convincing results compared with the state-of-the-art methods.

  
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APRNet: Attention-based Pixel-wise Rendering Network for Photo-Realistic Text Image Generation

Mar 15, 2022
Yangming Shi, Haisong Ding, Kai Chen, Qiang Huo

Style-guided text image generation tries to synthesize text image by imitating reference image's appearance while keeping text content unaltered. The text image appearance includes many aspects. In this paper, we focus on transferring style image's background and foreground color patterns to the content image to generate photo-realistic text image. To achieve this goal, we propose 1) a content-style cross attention based pixel sampling approach to roughly mimicking the style text image's background; 2) a pixel-wise style modulation technique to transfer varying color patterns of the style image to the content image spatial-adaptively; 3) a cross attention based multi-scale style fusion approach to solving text foreground misalignment issue between style and content images; 4) an image patch shuffling strategy to create style, content and ground truth image tuples for training. Experimental results on Chinese handwriting text image synthesis with SCUT-HCCDoc and CASIA-OLHWDB datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the quality of synthetic text images and make them more photo-realistic.

  
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Photo Stylistic Brush: Robust Style Transfer via Superpixel-Based Bipartite Graph

Jul 15, 2016
Jiaying Liu, Wenhan Yang, Xiaoyan Sun, Wenjun Zeng

With the rapid development of social network and multimedia technology, customized image and video stylization has been widely used for various social-media applications. In this paper, we explore the problem of exemplar-based photo style transfer, which provides a flexible and convenient way to invoke fantastic visual impression. Rather than investigating some fixed artistic patterns to represent certain styles as was done in some previous works, our work emphasizes styles related to a series of visual effects in the photograph, e.g. color, tone, and contrast. We propose a photo stylistic brush, an automatic robust style transfer approach based on Superpixel-based BIpartite Graph (SuperBIG). A two-step bipartite graph algorithm with different granularity levels is employed to aggregate pixels into superpixels and find their correspondences. In the first step, with the extracted hierarchical features, a bipartite graph is constructed to describe the content similarity for pixel partition to produce superpixels. In the second step, superpixels in the input/reference image are rematched to form a new superpixel-based bipartite graph, and superpixel-level correspondences are generated by a bipartite matching. Finally, the refined correspondence guides SuperBIG to perform the transformation in a decorrelated color space. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method for transferring various styles of exemplar images, even for some challenging cases, such as night images.

  
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CNN-based Real-time Dense Face Reconstruction with Inverse-rendered Photo-realistic Face Images

May 15, 2018
Yudong Guo, Juyong Zhang, Jianfei Cai, Boyi Jiang, Jianmin Zheng

With the powerfulness of convolution neural networks (CNN), CNN based face reconstruction has recently shown promising performance in reconstructing detailed face shape from 2D face images. The success of CNN-based methods relies on a large number of labeled data. The state-of-the-art synthesizes such data using a coarse morphable face model, which however has difficulty to generate detailed photo-realistic images of faces (with wrinkles). This paper presents a novel face data generation method. Specifically, we render a large number of photo-realistic face images with different attributes based on inverse rendering. Furthermore, we construct a fine-detailed face image dataset by transferring different scales of details from one image to another. We also construct a large number of video-type adjacent frame pairs by simulating the distribution of real video data. With these nicely constructed datasets, we propose a coarse-to-fine learning framework consisting of three convolutional networks. The networks are trained for real-time detailed 3D face reconstruction from monocular video as well as from a single image. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our framework can produce high-quality reconstruction but with much less computation time compared to the state-of-the-art. Moreover, our method is robust to pose, expression and lighting due to the diversity of data.

* Accepted by IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 2018 
  
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A-Lamp: Adaptive Layout-Aware Multi-Patch Deep Convolutional Neural Network for Photo Aesthetic Assessment

Apr 02, 2017
Shuang Ma, Jing Liu, Chang Wen Chen

Deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) have recently been shown to generate promising results for aesthetics assessment. However, the performance of these deep CNN methods is often compromised by the constraint that the neural network only takes the fixed-size input. To accommodate this requirement, input images need to be transformed via cropping, warping, or padding, which often alter image composition, reduce image resolution, or cause image distortion. Thus the aesthetics of the original images is impaired because of potential loss of fine grained details and holistic image layout. However, such fine grained details and holistic image layout is critical for evaluating an image's aesthetics. In this paper, we present an Adaptive Layout-Aware Multi-Patch Convolutional Neural Network (A-Lamp CNN) architecture for photo aesthetic assessment. This novel scheme is able to accept arbitrary sized images, and learn from both fined grained details and holistic image layout simultaneously. To enable training on these hybrid inputs, we extend the method by developing a dedicated double-subnet neural network structure, i.e. a Multi-Patch subnet and a Layout-Aware subnet. We further construct an aggregation layer to effectively combine the hybrid features from these two subnets. Extensive experiments on the large-scale aesthetics assessment benchmark (AVA) demonstrate significant performance improvement over the state-of-the-art in photo aesthetic assessment.

  
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Signing at Scale: Learning to Co-Articulate Signs for Large-Scale Photo-Realistic Sign Language Production

Mar 29, 2022
Ben Saunders, Necati Cihan Camgoz, Richard Bowden

Sign languages are visual languages, with vocabularies as rich as their spoken language counterparts. However, current deep-learning based Sign Language Production (SLP) models produce under-articulated skeleton pose sequences from constrained vocabularies and this limits applicability. To be understandable and accepted by the deaf, an automatic SLP system must be able to generate co-articulated photo-realistic signing sequences for large domains of discourse. In this work, we tackle large-scale SLP by learning to co-articulate between dictionary signs, a method capable of producing smooth signing while scaling to unconstrained domains of discourse. To learn sign co-articulation, we propose a novel Frame Selection Network (FS-Net) that improves the temporal alignment of interpolated dictionary signs to continuous signing sequences. Additionally, we propose SignGAN, a pose-conditioned human synthesis model that produces photo-realistic sign language videos direct from skeleton pose. We propose a novel keypoint-based loss function which improves the quality of synthesized hand images. We evaluate our SLP model on the large-scale meineDGS (mDGS) corpus, conducting extensive user evaluation showing our FS-Net approach improves co-articulation of interpolated dictionary signs. Additionally, we show that SignGAN significantly outperforms all baseline methods for quantitative metrics, human perceptual studies and native deaf signer comprehension.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2011.09846 
  
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