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"photo": models, code, and papers

Face Hallucination with Finishing Touches

Feb 09, 2020
Yang Zhang, Ivor W. Tsang, Jun Li, Ping Liu, Xiaobo Lu, Xin Yu

Obtaining a high-quality frontal face image from a low-resolution (LR) non-frontal face image is primarily important for many facial analysis applications. However, mainstreams either focus on super-resolving near-frontal LR faces or frontalizing non-frontal high-resolution (HR) faces. It is desirable to perform both tasks seamlessly for daily-life unconstrained face images. In this paper, we present a novel Vivid Face Hallucination Generative Adversarial Network (VividGAN) devised for simultaneously super-resolving and frontalizing tiny non-frontal face images. VividGAN consists of a Vivid Face Hallucination Network (Vivid-FHnet) and two discriminators, i.e., Coarse-D and Fine-D. The Vivid-FHnet first generates a coarse frontal HR face and then makes use of the structure prior, i.e., fine-grained facial components, to achieve a fine frontal HR face image. Specifically, we propose a facial component-aware module, which adopts the facial geometry guidance as clues to accurately align and merge the coarse frontal HR face and prior information. Meanwhile, the two-level discriminators are designed to capture both the global outline of the face as well as detailed facial characteristics. The Coarse-D enforces the coarse hallucinated faces to be upright and complete; while the Fine-D focuses on the fine hallucinated ones for sharper details. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our VividGAN achieves photo-realistic frontal HR faces, reaching superior performance in downstream tasks, i.e., face recognition and expression classification, compared with other state-of-the-art methods.

* 14 pages, 15 figures 
  
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CAISE: Conversational Agent for Image Search and Editing

Feb 24, 2022
Hyounghun Kim, Doo Soon Kim, Seunghyun Yoon, Franck Dernoncourt, Trung Bui, Mohit Bansal

Demand for image editing has been increasing as users' desire for expression is also increasing. However, for most users, image editing tools are not easy to use since the tools require certain expertise in photo effects and have complex interfaces. Hence, users might need someone to help edit their images, but having a personal dedicated human assistant for every user is impossible to scale. For that reason, an automated assistant system for image editing is desirable. Additionally, users want more image sources for diverse image editing works, and integrating an image search functionality into the editing tool is a potential remedy for this demand. Thus, we propose a dataset of an automated Conversational Agent for Image Search and Editing (CAISE). To our knowledge, this is the first dataset that provides conversational image search and editing annotations, where the agent holds a grounded conversation with users and helps them to search and edit images according to their requests. To build such a system, we first collect image search and editing conversations between pairs of annotators. The assistant-annotators are equipped with a customized image search and editing tool to address the requests from the user-annotators. The functions that the assistant-annotators conduct with the tool are recorded as executable commands, allowing the trained system to be useful for real-world application execution. We also introduce a generator-extractor baseline model for this task, which can adaptively select the source of the next token (i.e., from the vocabulary or from textual/visual contexts) for the executable command. This serves as a strong starting point while still leaving a large human-machine performance gap for useful future work. Our code and dataset are publicly available at: https://github.com/hyounghk/CAISE

* AAAI 2022 (11 pages) 
  
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SAPNet: Segmentation-Aware Progressive Network for Perceptual Contrastive Deraining

Nov 26, 2021
Shen Zheng, Changjie Lu, Yuxiong Wu, Gaurav Gupta

Deep learning algorithms have recently achieved promising deraining performances on both the natural and synthetic rainy datasets. As an essential low-level pre-processing stage, a deraining network should clear the rain streaks and preserve the fine semantic details. However, most existing methods only consider low-level image restoration. That limits their performances at high-level tasks requiring precise semantic information. To address this issue, in this paper, we present a segmentation-aware progressive network (SAPNet) based upon contrastive learning for single image deraining. We start our method with a lightweight derain network formed with progressive dilated units (PDU). The PDU can significantly expand the receptive field and characterize multi-scale rain streaks without the heavy computation on multi-scale images. A fundamental aspect of this work is an unsupervised background segmentation (UBS) network initialized with ImageNet and Gaussian weights. The UBS can faithfully preserve an image's semantic information and improve the generalization ability to unseen photos. Furthermore, we introduce a perceptual contrastive loss (PCL) and a learned perceptual image similarity loss (LPISL) to regulate model learning. By exploiting the rainy image and groundtruth as the negative and the positive sample in the VGG-16 latent space, we bridge the fine semantic details between the derained image and the groundtruth in a fully constrained manner. Comprehensive experiments on synthetic and real-world rainy images show our model surpasses top-performing methods and aids object detection and semantic segmentation with considerable efficacy. A Pytorch Implementation is available at https://github.com/ShenZheng2000/SAPNet-for-image-deraining.

* Accepted by WACV2022 
  
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CIE XYZ Net: Unprocessing Images for Low-Level Computer Vision Tasks

Jun 23, 2020
Mahmoud Afifi, Abdelrahman Abdelhamed, Abdullah Abuolaim, Abhijith Punnappurath, Michael S. Brown

Cameras currently allow access to two image states: (i) a minimally processed linear raw-RGB image state (i.e., raw sensor data) or (ii) a highly-processed nonlinear image state (e.g., sRGB). There are many computer vision tasks that work best with a linear image state, such as image deblurring and image dehazing. Unfortunately, the vast majority of images are saved in the nonlinear image state. Because of this, a number of methods have been proposed to "unprocess" nonlinear images back to a raw-RGB state. However, existing unprocessing methods have a drawback because raw-RGB images are sensor-specific. As a result, it is necessary to know which camera produced the sRGB output and use a method or network tailored for that sensor to properly unprocess it. This paper addresses this limitation by exploiting another camera image state that is not available as an output, but it is available inside the camera pipeline. In particular, cameras apply a colorimetric conversion step to convert the raw-RGB image to a device-independent space based on the CIE XYZ color space before they apply the nonlinear photo-finishing. Leveraging this canonical image state, we propose a deep learning framework, CIE XYZ Net, that can unprocess a nonlinear image back to the canonical CIE XYZ image. This image can then be processed by any low-level computer vision operator and re-rendered back to the nonlinear image. We demonstrate the usefulness of the CIE XYZ Net on several low-level vision tasks and show significant gains that can be obtained by this processing framework. Code and dataset are publicly available at https://github.com/mahmoudnafifi/CIE_XYZ_NET.

  
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Disentangled Lifespan Face Synthesis

Aug 13, 2021
Sen He, Wentong Liao, Michael Ying Yang, Yi-Zhe Song, Bodo Rosenhahn, Tao Xiang

A lifespan face synthesis (LFS) model aims to generate a set of photo-realistic face images of a person's whole life, given only one snapshot as reference. The generated face image given a target age code is expected to be age-sensitive reflected by bio-plausible transformations of shape and texture, while being identity preserving. This is extremely challenging because the shape and texture characteristics of a face undergo separate and highly nonlinear transformations w.r.t. age. Most recent LFS models are based on generative adversarial networks (GANs) whereby age code conditional transformations are applied to a latent face representation. They benefit greatly from the recent advancements of GANs. However, without explicitly disentangling their latent representations into the texture, shape and identity factors, they are fundamentally limited in modeling the nonlinear age-related transformation on texture and shape whilst preserving identity. In this work, a novel LFS model is proposed to disentangle the key face characteristics including shape, texture and identity so that the unique shape and texture age transformations can be modeled effectively. This is achieved by extracting shape, texture and identity features separately from an encoder. Critically, two transformation modules, one conditional convolution based and the other channel attention based, are designed for modeling the nonlinear shape and texture feature transformations respectively. This is to accommodate their rather distinct aging processes and ensure that our synthesized images are both age-sensitive and identity preserving. Extensive experiments show that our LFS model is clearly superior to the state-of-the-art alternatives. Codes and demo are available on our project website: \url{https://senhe.github.io/projects/iccv_2021_lifespan_face}.

* To appear in ICCV 2021 
  
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Making Images Undiscoverable from Co-Saliency Detection

Sep 19, 2020
Ruijun Gao, Qing Guo, Felix Juefei-Xu, Hongkai Yu, Xuhong Ren, Wei Feng, Song Wang

In recent years, co-saliency object detection (CoSOD) has achieved significant progress and played a key role in the retrieval-related tasks, e.g., image retrieval and video foreground detection. Nevertheless, it also inevitably posts a totally new safety and security problem, i.e., how to prevent high-profile and personal-sensitive contents from being extracted by the powerful CoSOD methods. In this paper, we address this problem from the perspective of adversarial attack and identify a novel task, i.e., adversarial co-saliency attack: given an image selected from an image group containing some common and salient objects, how to generate an adversarial version that can mislead CoSOD methods to predict incorrect co-salient regions. Note that, compared with general adversarial attacks for classification, this new task introduces two extra challenges for existing whitebox adversarial noise attacks: (1) low success rate due to the diverse appearance of images in the image group; (2) low transferability across CoSOD methods due to the considerable difference between CoSOD pipelines. To address these challenges, we propose the very first blackbox joint adversarial exposure & noise attack (Jadena) where we jointly and locally tune the exposure and additive perturbations of the image according to a newly designed high-feature-level contrast-sensitive loss function. Our method, without any information of the state-of-the-art CoSOD methods, leads to significant performance degradation on various co-saliency detection datasets and make the co-salient objects undetectable, which can be strongly practical in nowadays where large-scale personal photos are shared on the internet and should be properly and securely preserved.

  
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Fighting Deepfake by Exposing the Convolutional Traces on Images

Aug 07, 2020
Luca Guarnera, Oliver Giudice, Sebastiano Battiato

Advances in Artificial Intelligence and Image Processing are changing the way people interacts with digital images and video. Widespread mobile apps like FACEAPP make use of the most advanced Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) to produce extreme transformations on human face photos such gender swap, aging, etc. The results are utterly realistic and extremely easy to be exploited even for non-experienced users. This kind of media object took the name of Deepfake and raised a new challenge in the multimedia forensics field: the Deepfake detection challenge. Indeed, discriminating a Deepfake from a real image could be a difficult task even for human eyes but recent works are trying to apply the same technology used for generating images for discriminating them with preliminary good results but with many limitations: employed Convolutional Neural Networks are not so robust, demonstrate to be specific to the context and tend to extract semantics from images. In this paper, a new approach aimed to extract a Deepfake fingerprint from images is proposed. The method is based on the Expectation-Maximization algorithm trained to detect and extract a fingerprint that represents the Convolutional Traces (CT) left by GANs during image generation. The CT demonstrates to have high discriminative power achieving better results than state-of-the-art in the Deepfake detection task also proving to be robust to different attacks. Achieving an overall classification accuracy of over 98%, considering Deepfakes from 10 different GAN architectures not only involved in images of faces, the CT demonstrates to be reliable and without any dependence on image semantic. Finally, tests carried out on Deepfakes generated by FACEAPP achieving 93% of accuracy in the fake detection task, demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed technique on a real-case scenario.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2004.10448 
  
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Recurrent Exposure Generation for Low-Light Face Detection

Jul 21, 2020
Jinxiu Liang, Jingwen Wang, Yuhui Quan, Tianyi Chen, Jiaying Liu, Haibin Ling, Yong Xu

Face detection from low-light images is challenging due to limited photos and inevitable noise, which, to make the task even harder, are often spatially unevenly distributed. A natural solution is to borrow the idea from multi-exposure, which captures multiple shots to obtain well-exposed images under challenging conditions. High-quality implementation/approximation of multi-exposure from a single image is however nontrivial. Fortunately, as shown in this paper, neither is such high-quality necessary since our task is face detection rather than image enhancement. Specifically, we propose a novel Recurrent Exposure Generation (REG) module and couple it seamlessly with a Multi-Exposure Detection (MED) module, and thus significantly improve face detection performance by effectively inhibiting non-uniform illumination and noise issues. REG produces progressively and efficiently intermediate images corresponding to various exposure settings, and such pseudo-exposures are then fused by MED to detect faces across different lighting conditions. The proposed method, named REGDet, is the first `detection-with-enhancement' framework for low-light face detection. It not only encourages rich interaction and feature fusion across different illumination levels, but also enables effective end-to-end learning of the REG component to be better tailored for face detection. Moreover, as clearly shown in our experiments, REG can be flexibly coupled with different face detectors without extra low/normal-light image pairs for training. We tested REGDet on the DARK FACE low-light face benchmark with thorough ablation study, where REGDet outperforms previous state-of-the-arts by a significant margin, with only negligible extra parameters.

* 11 pages 
  
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