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"photo style transfer": models, code, and papers

Perceptual Image Super-Resolution with Progressive Adversarial Network

Mar 19, 2020
Lone Wong, Deli Zhao, Shaohua Wan, Bo Zhang

Single Image Super-Resolution (SISR) aims to improve resolution of small-size low-quality image from a single one. With popularity of consumer electronics in our daily life, this topic has become more and more attractive. In this paper, we argue that the curse of dimensionality is the underlying reason of limiting the performance of state-of-the-art algorithms. To address this issue, we propose Progressive Adversarial Network (PAN) that is capable of coping with this difficulty for domain-specific image super-resolution. The key principle of PAN is that we do not apply any distance-based reconstruction errors as the loss to be optimized, thus free from the restriction of the curse of dimensionality. To maintain faithful reconstruction precision, we resort to U-Net and progressive growing of neural architecture. The low-level features in encoder can be transferred into decoder to enhance textural details with U-Net. Progressive growing enhances image resolution gradually, thereby preserving precision of recovered image. Moreover, to obtain high-fidelity outputs, we leverage the framework of the powerful StyleGAN to perform adversarial learning. Without the curse of dimensionality, our model can super-resolve large-size images with remarkable photo-realistic details and few distortions. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm over state-of-the-arts both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  

Domain-Specific Image Super-Resolution with Progressive Adversarial Network

Mar 10, 2020
Lone Wong, Deli Zhao, Shaohua Wan, Bo Zhang

Single Image Super-Resolution (SISR) aims to improve resolution of small-size low-quality image from a single one. With popularity of consumer electronics in our daily life, this topic has become more and more attractive. In this paper, we argue that the curse of dimensionality is the underlying reason of limiting the performance of state-of-the-art algorithms. To address this issue, we propose Progressive Adversarial Network (PAN) that is capable of coping with this difficulty for domainspecific image super-resolution. The key principle of PAN is that we do not apply any distance-based reconstruction errors as the loss to be optimized, thus free from the restriction of the curse of dimensionality. To maintain faithful reconstruction precision, we resort to U-Net and progressive growing of neural architecture. The low-level features in encoder can be transferred into decoder to enhance textural details with U-Net. Progressive growing enhances image resolution gradually, thereby preserving precision of recovered image. Moreover, to obtain high-fidelity outputs, we leverage the framework of the powerful StyleGAN to perform adversarial learning. Without the curse of dimensionality, our model can super-resolve large-size images with remarkable photo-realistic details and few distortion. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm over existing state-of-the-arts both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  

Learning Co-segmentation by Segment Swapping for Retrieval and Discovery

Oct 29, 2021
Xi Shen, Alexei A. Efros, Armand Joulin, Mathieu Aubry

The goal of this work is to efficiently identify visually similar patterns from a pair of images, e.g. identifying an artwork detail copied between an engraving and an oil painting, or matching a night-time photograph with its daytime counterpart. Lack of training data is a key challenge for this co-segmentation task. We present a simple yet surprisingly effective approach to overcome this difficulty: we generate synthetic training pairs by selecting object segments in an image and copy-pasting them into another image. We then learn to predict the repeated object masks. We find that it is crucial to predict the correspondences as an auxiliary task and to use Poisson blending and style transfer on the training pairs to generalize on real data. We analyse results with two deep architectures relevant to our joint image analysis task: a transformer-based architecture and Sparse Nc-Net, a recent network designed to predict coarse correspondences using 4D convolutions. We show our approach provides clear improvements for artwork details retrieval on the Brueghel dataset and achieves competitive performance on two place recognition benchmarks, Tokyo247 and Pitts30K. We then demonstrate the potential of our approach by performing object discovery on the Internet object discovery dataset and the Brueghel dataset. Our code and data are available at http://imagine.enpc.fr/~shenx/SegSwap/.

  

Semi-supervised Adversarial Learning to Generate Photorealistic Face Images of New Identities from 3D Morphable Model

Apr 10, 2018
Baris Gecer, Binod Bhattarai, Josef Kittler, Tae-Kyun Kim

We propose a novel end-to-end semi-supervised adversarial framework to generate photorealistic face images of new identities with wide ranges of expressions, poses, and illuminations conditioned by a 3D morphable model. Previous adversarial style-transfer methods either supervise their networks with large volume of paired data or use unpaired data with a highly under-constrained two-way generative framework in an unsupervised fashion. We introduce pairwise adversarial supervision to constrain two-way domain adaptation by a small number of paired real and synthetic images for training along with the large volume of unpaired data. Extensive qualitative and quantitative experiments are performed to validate our idea. Generated face images of new identities contain pose, lighting and expression diversity and qualitative results show that they are highly constraint by the synthetic input image while adding photorealism and retaining identity information. We combine face images generated by the proposed method with the real data set to train face recognition algorithms. We evaluated the model on two challenging data sets: LFW and IJB-A. We observe that the generated images from our framework consistently improves over the performance of deep face recognition network trained with Oxford VGG Face dataset and achieves comparable results to the state-of-the-art.

  

Identity-preserving Face Recovery from Portraits

Feb 05, 2018
Fatemeh Shiri, Xin Yu, Fatih Porikli, Richard Hartley, Piotr Koniusz

Recovering the latent photorealistic faces from their artistic portraits aids human perception and facial analysis. However, a recovery process that can preserve identity is challenging because the fine details of real faces can be distorted or lost in stylized images. In this paper, we present a new Identity-preserving Face Recovery from Portraits (IFRP) to recover latent photorealistic faces from unaligned stylized portraits. Our IFRP method consists of two components: Style Removal Network (SRN) and Discriminative Network (DN). The SRN is designed to transfer feature maps of stylized images to the feature maps of the corresponding photorealistic faces. By embedding spatial transformer networks into the SRN, our method can compensate for misalignments of stylized faces automatically and output aligned realistic face images. The role of the DN is to enforce recovered faces to be similar to authentic faces. To ensure the identity preservation, we promote the recovered and ground-truth faces to share similar visual features via a distance measure which compares features of recovered and ground-truth faces extracted from a pre-trained VGG network. We evaluate our method on a large-scale synthesized dataset of real and stylized face pairs and attain state of the art results. In addition, our method can recover photorealistic faces from previously unseen stylized portraits, original paintings and human-drawn sketches.

  

Identity-preserving Face Recovery from Stylized Portraits

Apr 07, 2019
Fatemeh Shiri, Xin Yu, Fatih Porikli, Richard Hartley, Piotr Koniusz

Given an artistic portrait, recovering the latent photorealistic face that preserves the subject's identity is challenging because the facial details are often distorted or fully lost in artistic portraits. We develop an Identity-preserving Face Recovery from Portraits (IFRP) method that utilizes a Style Removal network (SRN) and a Discriminative Network (DN). Our SRN, composed of an autoencoder with residual block-embedded skip connections, is designed to transfer feature maps of stylized images to the feature maps of the corresponding photorealistic faces. Owing to the Spatial Transformer Network (STN), SRN automatically compensates for misalignments of stylized portraits to output aligned realistic face images. To ensure the identity preservation, we promote the recovered and ground truth faces to share similar visual features via a distance measure which compares features of recovered and ground truth faces extracted from a pre-trained FaceNet network. DN has multiple convolutional and fully-connected layers, and its role is to enforce recovered faces to be similar to authentic faces. Thus, we can recover high-quality photorealistic faces from unaligned portraits while preserving the identity of the face in an image. By conducting extensive evaluations on a large-scale synthesized dataset and a hand-drawn sketch dataset, we demonstrate that our method achieves superior face recovery and attains state-of-the-art results. In addition, our method can recover photorealistic faces from unseen stylized portraits, artistic paintings, and hand-drawn sketches.

* International Journal of Computer Vision 2019. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1801.02279 
  

Color2Style: Real-Time Exemplar-Based Image Colorization with Self-Reference Learning and Deep Feature Modulation

Jun 16, 2021
Hengyuan Zhao, Wenhao Wu, Yihao Liu, Dongliang He

Legacy black-and-white photos are riddled with people's nostalgia and glorious memories of the past. To better relive the elapsed frozen moments, in this paper, we present a deep exemplar-based image colorization approach named Color2Style to resurrect these grayscale image media by filling them with vibrant colors. Generally, for exemplar-based colorization, unsupervised and unpaired training are usually adopted, due to the difficulty of obtaining input and ground truth image pairs. To train an exemplar-based colorization model, current algorithms usually strive to achieve two procedures: i) retrieving a large number of reference images with high similarity in advance, which is inevitably time-consuming and tedious; ii) designing complicated modules to transfer the colors of the reference image to the grayscale image, by calculating and leveraging the deep semantic correspondence between them (e.g., non-local operation). Contrary to the previous methods, we solve and simplify the above two steps in one end-to-end learning procedure. First, we adopt a self-augmented self-reference training scheme, where the reference image is generated by graphical transformations from the original colorful one whereby the training can be formulated in a paired manner. Second, instead of computing complex and inexplicable correspondence maps, our method exploits a simple yet effective deep feature modulation (DFM) module, which injects the color embeddings extracted from the reference image into the deep representations of the input grayscale image. Such design is much more lightweight and intelligible, achieving appealing performance with real-time processing speed. Moreover, our model does not require multifarious loss functions and regularization terms like existing methods, but only two widely used loss functions. Codes and models will be available at https://github.com/zhaohengyuan1/Color2Style.

* 16 pages, 21 figures 
  

DGL-GAN: Discriminator Guided Learning for GAN Compression

Dec 13, 2021
Yuesong Tian, Li Shen, Dacheng Tao, Zhifeng Li, Wei Liu

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) with high computation costs, e.g., BigGAN and StyleGAN2, have achieved remarkable results in synthesizing high resolution and diverse images with high fidelity from random noises. Reducing the computation cost of GANs while keeping generating photo-realistic images is an urgent and challenging field for their broad applications on computational resource-limited devices. In this work, we propose a novel yet simple {\bf D}iscriminator {\bf G}uided {\bf L}earning approach for compressing vanilla {\bf GAN}, dubbed {\bf DGL-GAN}. Motivated by the phenomenon that the teacher discriminator may contain some meaningful information, we transfer the knowledge merely from the teacher discriminator via the adversarial function. We show DGL-GAN is valid since empirically, learning from the teacher discriminator could facilitate the performance of student GANs, verified by extensive experimental findings. Furthermore, we propose a two-stage training strategy for training DGL-GAN, which can largely stabilize its training process and achieve superior performance when we apply DGL-GAN to compress the two most representative large-scale vanilla GANs, i.e., StyleGAN2 and BigGAN. Experiments show that DGL-GAN achieves state-of-the-art (SOTA) results on both StyleGAN2 (FID 2.92 on FFHQ with nearly $1/3$ parameters of StyleGAN2) and BigGAN (IS 93.29 and FID 9.92 on ImageNet with nearly $1/4$ parameters of BigGAN) and also outperforms several existing vanilla GAN compression techniques. Moreover, DGL-GAN is also effective in boosting the performance of original uncompressed GANs, original uncompressed StyleGAN2 boosted with DGL-GAN achieves FID 2.65 on FFHQ, which achieves a new state-of-the-art performance. Code and models are available at \url{https://github.com/yuesongtian/DGL-GAN}.

  

Unpaired High-Resolution and Scalable Style Transfer Using Generative Adversarial Networks

Oct 10, 2018
Andrej Junginger, Markus Hanselmann, Thilo Strauss, Sebastian Boblest, Jens Buchner, Holger Ulmer

Neural networks have proven their capabilities by outperforming many other approaches on regression or classification tasks on various kinds of data. Other astonishing results have been achieved using neural nets as data generators, especially in settings of generative adversarial networks (GANs). One special application is the field of image domain translations. Here, the goal is to take an image with a certain style (e.g. a photography) and transform it into another one (e.g. a painting). If such a task is performed for unpaired training examples, the corresponding GAN setting is complex, the neural networks are large, and this leads to a high peak memory consumption during, both, training and evaluation phase. This sets a limit to the highest processable image size. We address this issue by the idea of not processing the whole image at once, but to train and evaluate the domain translation on the level of overlapping image subsamples. This new approach not only enables us to translate high-resolution images that otherwise cannot be processed by the neural network at once, but also allows us to work with comparably small neural networks and with limited hardware resources. Additionally, the number of images required for the training process is significantly reduced. We present high-quality results on images with a total resolution of up to over 50 megapixels and emonstrate that our method helps to preserve local image details while it also keeps global consistency.

* 10 pages, 8 figures 
  
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