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"photo style transfer": models, code, and papers

Precomputed Real-Time Texture Synthesis with Markovian Generative Adversarial Networks

Apr 15, 2016
Chuan Li, Michael Wand

This paper proposes Markovian Generative Adversarial Networks (MGANs), a method for training generative neural networks for efficient texture synthesis. While deep neural network approaches have recently demonstrated remarkable results in terms of synthesis quality, they still come at considerable computational costs (minutes of run-time for low-res images). Our paper addresses this efficiency issue. Instead of a numerical deconvolution in previous work, we precompute a feed-forward, strided convolutional network that captures the feature statistics of Markovian patches and is able to directly generate outputs of arbitrary dimensions. Such network can directly decode brown noise to realistic texture, or photos to artistic paintings. With adversarial training, we obtain quality comparable to recent neural texture synthesis methods. As no optimization is required any longer at generation time, our run-time performance (0.25M pixel images at 25Hz) surpasses previous neural texture synthesizers by a significant margin (at least 500 times faster). We apply this idea to texture synthesis, style transfer, and video stylization.

* 17 pages, 15 figures 

SpaceEdit: Learning a Unified Editing Space for Open-Domain Image Editing

Nov 30, 2021
Jing Shi, Ning Xu, Haitian Zheng, Alex Smith, Jiebo Luo, Chenliang Xu

Recently, large pretrained models (e.g., BERT, StyleGAN, CLIP) have shown great knowledge transfer and generalization capability on various downstream tasks within their domains. Inspired by these efforts, in this paper we propose a unified model for open-domain image editing focusing on color and tone adjustment of open-domain images while keeping their original content and structure. Our model learns a unified editing space that is more semantic, intuitive, and easy to manipulate than the operation space (e.g., contrast, brightness, color curve) used in many existing photo editing softwares. Our model belongs to the image-to-image translation framework which consists of an image encoder and decoder, and is trained on pairs of before- and after-images to produce multimodal outputs. We show that by inverting image pairs into latent codes of the learned editing space, our model can be leveraged for various downstream editing tasks such as language-guided image editing, personalized editing, editing-style clustering, retrieval, etc. We extensively study the unique properties of the editing space in experiments and demonstrate superior performance on the aforementioned tasks.


Sensory Optimization: Neural Networks as a Model for Understanding and Creating Art

Nov 16, 2019
Owain Evans

This article is about the cognitive science of visual art. Artists create physical artifacts (such as sculptures or paintings) which depict people, objects, and events. These depictions are usually stylized rather than photo-realistic. How is it that humans are able to understand and create stylized representations? Does this ability depend on general cognitive capacities or an evolutionary adaptation for art? What role is played by learning and culture? Machine Learning can shed light on these questions. It's possible to train convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to recognize objects without training them on any visual art. If such CNNs can generalize to visual art (by creating and understanding stylized representations), then CNNs provide a model for how humans could understand art without innate adaptations or cultural learning. I argue that Deep Dream and Style Transfer show that CNNs can create a basic form of visual art, and that humans could create art by similar processes. This suggests that artists make art by optimizing for effects on the human object-recognition system. Physical artifacts are optimized to evoke real-world objects for this system (e.g. to evoke people or landscapes) and to serve as superstimuli for this system.

* 27 pages. Web version with high-resolution images: 

Recognizing Instagram Filtered Images with Feature De-stylization

Dec 30, 2019
Zhe Wu, Zuxuan Wu, Bharat Singh, Larry S. Davis

Deep neural networks have been shown to suffer from poor generalization when small perturbations are added (like Gaussian noise), yet little work has been done to evaluate their robustness to more natural image transformations like photo filters. This paper presents a study on how popular pretrained models are affected by commonly used Instagram filters. To this end, we introduce ImageNet-Instagram, a filtered version of ImageNet, where 20 popular Instagram filters are applied to each image in ImageNet. Our analysis suggests that simple structure preserving filters which only alter the global appearance of an image can lead to large differences in the convolutional feature space. To improve generalization, we introduce a lightweight de-stylization module that predicts parameters used for scaling and shifting feature maps to "undo" the changes incurred by filters, inverting the process of style transfer tasks. We further demonstrate the module can be readily plugged into modern CNN architectures together with skip connections. We conduct extensive studies on ImageNet-Instagram, and show quantitatively and qualitatively, that the proposed module, among other things, can effectively improve generalization by simply learning normalization parameters without retraining the entire network, thus recovering the alterations in the feature space caused by the filters.

* Accepted in AAAI 2020 as an oral presentation paper 

LOHO: Latent Optimization of Hairstyles via Orthogonalization

Mar 10, 2021
Rohit Saha, Brendan Duke, Florian Shkurti, Graham W. Taylor, Parham Aarabi

Hairstyle transfer is challenging due to hair structure differences in the source and target hair. Therefore, we propose Latent Optimization of Hairstyles via Orthogonalization (LOHO), an optimization-based approach using GAN inversion to infill missing hair structure details in latent space during hairstyle transfer. Our approach decomposes hair into three attributes: perceptual structure, appearance, and style, and includes tailored losses to model each of these attributes independently. Furthermore, we propose two-stage optimization and gradient orthogonalization to enable disentangled latent space optimization of our hair attributes. Using LOHO for latent space manipulation, users can synthesize novel photorealistic images by manipulating hair attributes either individually or jointly, transferring the desired attributes from reference hairstyles. LOHO achieves a superior FID compared with the current state-of-the-art (SOTA) for hairstyle transfer. Additionally, LOHO preserves the subject's identity comparably well according to PSNR and SSIM when compared to SOTA image embedding pipelines. Code is available at

* CVPR 2021 

Weather GAN: Multi-Domain Weather Translation Using Generative Adversarial Networks

Mar 09, 2021
Xuelong Li, Kai Kou, Bin Zhao

In this paper, a new task is proposed, namely, weather translation, which refers to transferring weather conditions of the image from one category to another. It is important for photographic style transfer. Although lots of approaches have been proposed in traditional image translation tasks, few of them can handle the multi-category weather translation task, since weather conditions have rich categories and highly complex semantic structures. To address this problem, we develop a multi-domain weather translation approach based on generative adversarial networks (GAN), denoted as Weather GAN, which can achieve the transferring of weather conditions among sunny, cloudy, foggy, rainy and snowy. Specifically, the weather conditions in the image are determined by various weather-cues, such as cloud, blue sky, wet ground, etc. Therefore, it is essential for weather translation to focus the main attention on weather-cues. To this end, the generator of Weather GAN is composed of an initial translation module, an attention module and a weather-cue segmentation module. The initial translation module performs global translation during generation procedure. The weather-cue segmentation module identifies the structure and exact distribution of weather-cues. The attention module learns to focus on the interesting areas of the image while keeping other areas unaltered. The final generated result is synthesized by these three parts. This approach suppresses the distortion and deformation caused by weather translation. our approach outperforms the state-of-the-arts has been shown by a large number of experiments and evaluations.


Generative Adversarial Networks for photo to Hayao Miyazaki style cartoons

May 15, 2020
Filip Andersson, Simon Arvidsson

This paper takes on the problem of transferring the style of cartoon images to real-life photographic images by implementing previous work done by CartoonGAN. We trained a Generative Adversial Network(GAN) on over 60 000 images from works by Hayao Miyazaki at Studio Ghibli. To evaluate our results, we conducted a qualitative survey comparing our results with two state-of-the-art methods. 117 survey results indicated that our model on average outranked state-of-the-art methods on cartoon-likeness.


Image2StyleGAN: How to Embed Images Into the StyleGAN Latent Space?

Apr 05, 2019
Rameen Abdal, Yipeng Qin, Peter Wonka

We propose an efficient algorithm to embed a given image into the latent space of StyleGAN. This embedding enables semantic image editing operations that can be applied to existing photographs. Taking the StyleGAN trained on the FFHD dataset as an example, we show results for image morphing, style transfer, and expression transfer. Studying the results of the embedding algorithm provides valuable insights into the structure of the StyleGAN latent space. We propose a set of experiments to test what class of images can be embedded, how they are embedded, what latent space is suitable for embedding, and if the embedding is semantically meaningful.

* "For videos visit , and

Fast Face-swap Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Jul 27, 2017
Iryna Korshunova, Wenzhe Shi, Joni Dambre, Lucas Theis

We consider the problem of face swapping in images, where an input identity is transformed into a target identity while preserving pose, facial expression, and lighting. To perform this mapping, we use convolutional neural networks trained to capture the appearance of the target identity from an unstructured collection of his/her photographs.This approach is enabled by framing the face swapping problem in terms of style transfer, where the goal is to render an image in the style of another one. Building on recent advances in this area, we devise a new loss function that enables the network to produce highly photorealistic results. By combining neural networks with simple pre- and post-processing steps, we aim at making face swap work in real-time with no input from the user.


Semantic Segmentation in Art Paintings

Mar 07, 2022
Nadav Cohen, Yael Newman, Ariel Shamir

Semantic segmentation is a difficult task even when trained in a supervised manner on photographs. In this paper, we tackle the problem of semantic segmentation of artistic paintings, an even more challenging task because of a much larger diversity in colors, textures, and shapes and because there are no ground truth annotations available for segmentation. We propose an unsupervised method for semantic segmentation of paintings using domain adaptation. Our approach creates a training set of pseudo-paintings in specific artistic styles by using style-transfer on the PASCAL VOC 2012 dataset, and then applies domain confusion between PASCAL VOC 2012 and real paintings. These two steps build on a new dataset we gathered called DRAM (Diverse Realism in Art Movements) composed of figurative art paintings from four movements, which are highly diverse in pattern, color, and geometry. To segment new paintings, we present a composite multi-domain adaptation method that trains on each sub-domain separately and composes their solutions during inference time. Our method provides better segmentation results not only on the specific artistic movements of DRAM, but also on other, unseen ones. We compare our approach to alternative methods and show applications of semantic segmentation in art paintings. The code and models for our approach are publicly available at:

* Published as a conference paper at EuroGraphics 2022