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"music generation": models, code, and papers

Gunrock 2.0: A User Adaptive Social Conversational System

Nov 30, 2020
Kaihui Liang, Austin Chau, Yu Li, Xueyuan Lu, Dian Yu, Mingyang Zhou, Ishan Jain, Sam Davidson, Josh Arnold, Minh Nguyen, Zhou Yu

Gunrock 2.0 is built on top of Gunrock with an emphasis on user adaptation. Gunrock 2.0 combines various neural natural language understanding modules, including named entity detection, linking, and dialog act prediction, to improve user understanding. Its dialog management is a hierarchical model that handles various topics, such as movies, music, and sports. The system-level dialog manager can handle question detection, acknowledgment, error handling, and additional functions, making downstream modules much easier to design and implement. The dialog manager also adapts its topic selection to accommodate different users' profile information, such as inferred gender and personality. The generation model is a mix of templates and neural generation models. Gunrock 2.0 is able to achieve an average rating of 3.73 at its latest build from May 29th to June 4th.

* Published in 3rd Proceedings of Alexa Prize (Alexa Prize 2020) 

Lyric Video Analysis Using Text Detection and Tracking

Jun 21, 2020
Shota Sakaguchi, Jun Kato, Masataka Goto, Seiichi Uchida

We attempt to recognize and track lyric words in lyric videos. Lyric video is a music video showing the lyric words of a song. The main characteristic of lyric videos is that the lyric words are shown at frames synchronously with the music. The difficulty of recognizing and tracking the lyric words is that (1) the words are often decorated and geometrically distorted and (2) the words move arbitrarily and drastically in the video frame. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the motion of the lyric words in lyric videos, as the first step of automatic lyric video generation. In order to analyze the motion of lyric words, we first apply a state-of-the-art scene text detector and recognizer to each video frame. Then, lyric-frame matching is performed to establish the optimal correspondence between lyric words and the frames. After fixing the motion trajectories of individual lyric words from correspondence, we analyze the trajectories of the lyric words by k-medoids clustering and dynamic time warping (DTW).

* 15 pages, 8 figures, DAS 2020 

Timbre Transfer with Variational Auto Encoding and Cycle-Consistent Adversarial Networks

Sep 05, 2021
Russell Sammut Bonnici, Charalampos Saitis, Martin Benning

This research project investigates the application of deep learning to timbre transfer, where the timbre of a source audio can be converted to the timbre of a target audio with minimal loss in quality. The adopted approach combines Variational Autoencoders with Generative Adversarial Networks to construct meaningful representations of the source audio and produce realistic generations of the target audio and is applied to the Flickr 8k Audio dataset for transferring the vocal timbre between speakers and the URMP dataset for transferring the musical timbre between instruments. Furthermore, variations of the adopted approach are trained, and generalised performance is compared using the metrics SSIM (Structural Similarity Index) and FAD (Frech\'et Audio Distance). It was found that a many-to-many approach supersedes a one-to-one approach in terms of reconstructive capabilities, and that the adoption of a basic over a bottleneck residual block design is more suitable for enriching content information about a latent space. It was also found that the decision on whether cyclic loss takes on a variational autoencoder or vanilla autoencoder approach does not have a significant impact on reconstructive and adversarial translation aspects of the model.

* 12 pages, 3 main figures, 4 tables 

Neural Waveshaping Synthesis

Jul 27, 2021
Ben Hayes, Charalampos Saitis, György Fazekas

We present the Neural Waveshaping Unit (NEWT): a novel, lightweight, fully causal approach to neural audio synthesis which operates directly in the waveform domain, with an accompanying optimisation (FastNEWT) for efficient CPU inference. The NEWT uses time-distributed multilayer perceptrons with periodic activations to implicitly learn nonlinear transfer functions that encode the characteristics of a target timbre. Once trained, a NEWT can produce complex timbral evolutions by simple affine transformations of its input and output signals. We paired the NEWT with a differentiable noise synthesiser and reverb and found it capable of generating realistic musical instrument performances with only 260k total model parameters, conditioned on F0 and loudness features. We compared our method to state-of-the-art benchmarks with a multi-stimulus listening test and the Fr\'echet Audio Distance and found it performed competitively across the tested timbral domains. Our method significantly outperformed the benchmarks in terms of generation speed, and achieved real-time performance on a consumer CPU, both with and without FastNEWT, suggesting it is a viable basis for future creative sound design tools.

* Accepted to ISMIR 2021; See online supplement at 

VISinger: Variational Inference with Adversarial Learning for End-to-End Singing Voice Synthesis

Oct 17, 2021
Yongmao Zhang, Jian Cong, Heyang Xue, Lei Xie, Pengcheng Zhu, Mengxiao Bi

In this paper, we propose VISinger, a complete end-to-end high-quality singing voice synthesis (SVS) system that directly generates audio waveform from lyrics and musical score. Our approach is inspired by VITS, which adopts VAE-based posterior encoder augmented with normalizing flow-based prior encoder and adversarial decoder to realize complete end-to-end speech generation. VISinger follows the main architecture of VITS, but makes substantial improvements to the prior encoder based on the characteristics of singing. First, instead of using phoneme-level mean and variance of acoustic features, we introduce a length regulator and a frame prior network to get the frame-level mean and variance on acoustic features, modeling the rich acoustic variation in singing. Second, we further introduce an F0 predictor to guide the frame prior network, leading to stabler singing performance. Finally, to improve the singing rhythm, we modify the duration predictor to specifically predict the phoneme to note duration ratio, helped with singing note normalization. Experiments on a professional Mandarin singing corpus show that VISinger significantly outperforms FastSpeech+Neural-Vocoder two-stage approach and the oracle VITS; ablation study demonstrates the effectiveness of different contributions.

* 5 pages, submitted to ICASSP 2022 

A Critical Review of Recurrent Neural Networks for Sequence Learning

Oct 17, 2015
Zachary C. Lipton, John Berkowitz, Charles Elkan

Countless learning tasks require dealing with sequential data. Image captioning, speech synthesis, and music generation all require that a model produce outputs that are sequences. In other domains, such as time series prediction, video analysis, and musical information retrieval, a model must learn from inputs that are sequences. Interactive tasks, such as translating natural language, engaging in dialogue, and controlling a robot, often demand both capabilities. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are connectionist models that capture the dynamics of sequences via cycles in the network of nodes. Unlike standard feedforward neural networks, recurrent networks retain a state that can represent information from an arbitrarily long context window. Although recurrent neural networks have traditionally been difficult to train, and often contain millions of parameters, recent advances in network architectures, optimization techniques, and parallel computation have enabled successful large-scale learning with them. In recent years, systems based on long short-term memory (LSTM) and bidirectional (BRNN) architectures have demonstrated ground-breaking performance on tasks as varied as image captioning, language translation, and handwriting recognition. In this survey, we review and synthesize the research that over the past three decades first yielded and then made practical these powerful learning models. When appropriate, we reconcile conflicting notation and nomenclature. Our goal is to provide a self-contained explication of the state of the art together with a historical perspective and references to primary research.


Streamable Neural Audio Synthesis With Non-Causal Convolutions

Apr 14, 2022
Antoine Caillon, Philippe Esling

Deep learning models are mostly used in an offline inference fashion. However, this strongly limits the use of these models inside audio generation setups, as most creative workflows are based on real-time digital signal processing. Although approaches based on recurrent networks can be naturally adapted to this buffer-based computation, the use of convolutions still poses some serious challenges. To tackle this issue, the use of causal streaming convolutions have been proposed. However, this requires specific complexified training and can impact the resulting audio quality. In this paper, we introduce a new method allowing to produce non-causal streaming models. This allows to make any convolutional model compatible with real-time buffer-based processing. As our method is based on a post-training reconfiguration of the model, we show that it is able to transform models trained without causal constraints into a streaming model. We show how our method can be adapted to fit complex architectures with parallel branches. To evaluate our method, we apply it on the recent RAVE model, which provides high-quality real-time audio synthesis. We test our approach on multiple music and speech datasets and show that it is faster than overlap-add methods, while having no impact on the generation quality. Finally, we introduce two open-source implementation of our work as Max/MSP and PureData externals, and as a VST audio plugin. This allows to endow traditional digital audio workstation with real-time neural audio synthesis on a laptop CPU.


Jurassic is (almost) All You Need: Few-Shot Meaning-to-Text Generation for Open-Domain Dialogue

Oct 15, 2021
Lena Reed, Cecilia Li, Angela Ramirez, Liren Wu, Marilyn Walker

One challenge with open-domain dialogue systems is the need to produce high-quality responses on any topic. We aim to improve the quality and coverage of Athena, an Alexa Prize dialogue system. We utilize Athena's response generators (RGs) to create training data for two new neural Meaning-to-Text RGs, Athena-GPT-Neo and Athena-Jurassic, for the movies, music, TV, sports, and video game domains. We conduct few-shot experiments, both within and cross-domain, with different tuning set sizes (2, 3, 10), prompt formats, and meaning representations (MRs) for sets of WikiData KG triples, and dialogue acts with 14 possible attribute combinations. Our evaluation uses BLEURT and human evaluation metrics, and shows that with 10-shot tuning, Athena-Jurassic's performance is significantly better for coherence and semantic accuracy. Experiments with 2-shot tuning on completely novel MRs results in a huge performance drop for Athena-GPT-Neo, whose semantic accuracy falls to 0.41, and whose untrue hallucination rate increases to 12%. Experiments with dialogue acts for video games show that with 10-shot tuning, both models learn to control dialogue acts, but Athena-Jurassic has significantly higher coherence, and only 4% untrue hallucinations. Our results suggest that Athena-Jurassic can reliably produce outputs of high-quality for live systems with real users. To our knowledge, these are the first results demonstrating that few-shot tuning on a massive language model can create NLGs that generalize to new domains, and produce high-quality, semantically-controlled, conversational responses directly from MRs and KG triples.

* The 12th International Workshop on Spoken Dialog System Technology, IWSDS 2021