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"music generation": models, code, and papers

DiffSinger: Diffusion Acoustic Model for Singing Voice Synthesis

May 06, 2021
Jinglin Liu, Chengxi Li, Yi Ren, Feiyang Chen, Peng Liu, Zhou Zhao

Singing voice synthesis (SVS) system is built to synthesize high-quality and expressive singing voice, in which the acoustic model generates the acoustic features (e.g., mel-spectrogram) given a music score. Previous singing acoustic models adopt simple loss (e.g., L1 and L2) or generative adversarial network (GAN) to reconstruct the acoustic features, while they suffer from over-smoothing and unstable training issues respectively, which hinder the naturalness of synthesized singing. In this work, we propose DiffSinger, an acoustic model for SVS based on the diffusion probabilistic model. DiffSinger is a parameterized Markov chain which iteratively converts the noise into mel-spectrogram conditioned on the music score. By implicitly optimizing variational bound, DiffSinger can be stably trained and generates realistic outputs. To further improve the voice quality, we introduce a \textbf{shallow diffusion mechanism} to make better use of the prior knowledge learned by the simple loss. Specifically, DiffSinger starts generation at a shallow step smaller than the total number of diffusion steps, according to the intersection of the diffusion trajectories of the ground-truth mel-spectrogram and the one predicted by a simple mel-spectrogram decoder. Besides, we train a boundary prediction network to locate the intersection and determine the shallow step adaptively. The evaluations conducted on the Chinese singing dataset demonstrate that DiffSinger outperforms state-of-the-art SVS work with a notable margin (0.11 MOS gains). Our extensional experiments also prove the generalization of DiffSinger on text-to-speech task.

* Acoustic Model; Shallow Diffusion Mechanism 
  

Automatic, Personalized, and Flexible Playlist Generation using Reinforcement Learning

Sep 12, 2018
Shun-Yao Shih, Heng-Yu Chi

Songs can be well arranged by professional music curators to form a riveting playlist that creates engaging listening experiences. However, it is time-consuming for curators to timely rearrange these playlists for fitting trends in future. By exploiting the techniques of deep learning and reinforcement learning, in this paper, we consider music playlist generation as a language modeling problem and solve it by the proposed attention language model with policy gradient. We develop a systematic and interactive approach so that the resulting playlists can be tuned flexibly according to user preferences. Considering a playlist as a sequence of words, we first train our attention RNN language model on baseline recommended playlists. By optimizing suitable imposed reward functions, the model is thus refined for corresponding preferences. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach not only generates coherent playlists automatically but is also able to flexibly recommend personalized playlists for diversity, novelty and freshness.

* 7 pages, 4 figures, ISMIR 2018 
  

Region-based Layout Analysis of Music Score Images

Jan 11, 2022
Francisco J. Castellanos, Carlos Garrido-Munoz, Antonio Ríos-Vila, Jorge Calvo-Zaragoza

The Layout Analysis (LA) stage is of vital importance to the correct performance of an Optical Music Recognition (OMR) system. It identifies the regions of interest, such as staves or lyrics, which must then be processed in order to transcribe their content. Despite the existence of modern approaches based on deep learning, an exhaustive study of LA in OMR has not yet been carried out with regard to the precision of different models, their generalization to different domains or, more importantly, their impact on subsequent stages of the pipeline. This work focuses on filling this gap in literature by means of an experimental study of different neural architectures, music document types and evaluation scenarios. The need for training data has also led to a proposal for a new semi-synthetic data generation technique that enables the efficient applicability of LA approaches in real scenarios. Our results show that: (i) the choice of the model and its performance are crucial for the entire transcription process; (ii) the metrics commonly used to evaluate the LA stage do not always correlate with the final performance of the OMR system, and (iii) the proposed data-generation technique enables state-of-the-art results to be achieved with a limited set of labeled data.

* Submitted to Expert Systems with Applications 
  

Transflower: probabilistic autoregressive dance generation with multimodal attention

Jun 25, 2021
Guillermo Valle-Pérez, Gustav Eje Henter, Jonas Beskow, André Holzapfel, Pierre-Yves Oudeyer, Simon Alexanderson

Dance requires skillful composition of complex movements that follow rhythmic, tonal and timbral features of music. Formally, generating dance conditioned on a piece of music can be expressed as a problem of modelling a high-dimensional continuous motion signal, conditioned on an audio signal. In this work we make two contributions to tackle this problem. First, we present a novel probabilistic autoregressive architecture that models the distribution over future poses with a normalizing flow conditioned on previous poses as well as music context, using a multimodal transformer encoder. Second, we introduce the currently largest 3D dance-motion dataset, obtained with a variety of motion-capture technologies, and including both professional and casual dancers. Using this dataset, we compare our new model against two baselines, via objective metrics and a user study, and show that both the ability to model a probability distribution, as well as being able to attend over a large motion and music context are necessary to produce interesting, diverse, and realistic dance that matches the music.

  

Rigid Formats Controlled Text Generation

Apr 17, 2020
Piji Li, Haisong Zhang, Xiaojiang Liu, Shuming Shi

Neural text generation has made tremendous progress in various tasks. One common characteristic of most of the tasks is that the texts are not restricted to some rigid formats when generating. However, we may confront some special text paradigms such as Lyrics (assume the music score is given), Sonnet, SongCi (classical Chinese poetry of the Song dynasty), etc. The typical characteristics of these texts are in three folds: (1) They must comply fully with the rigid predefined formats. (2) They must obey some rhyming schemes. (3) Although they are restricted to some formats, the sentence integrity must be guaranteed. To the best of our knowledge, text generation based on the predefined rigid formats has not been well investigated. Therefore, we propose a simple and elegant framework named SongNet to tackle this problem. The backbone of the framework is a Transformer-based auto-regressive language model. Sets of symbols are tailor-designed to improve the modeling performance especially on format, rhyme, and sentence integrity. We improve the attention mechanism to impel the model to capture some future information on the format. A pre-training and fine-tuning framework is designed to further improve the generation quality. Extensive experiments conducted on two collected corpora demonstrate that our proposed framework generates significantly better results in terms of both automatic metrics and the human evaluation.

* ACL2020, 10 pages 
  

Sequence Tutor: Conservative Fine-Tuning of Sequence Generation Models with KL-control

Oct 16, 2017
Natasha Jaques, Shixiang Gu, Dzmitry Bahdanau, José Miguel Hernández-Lobato, Richard E. Turner, Douglas Eck

This paper proposes a general method for improving the structure and quality of sequences generated by a recurrent neural network (RNN), while maintaining information originally learned from data, as well as sample diversity. An RNN is first pre-trained on data using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), and the probability distribution over the next token in the sequence learned by this model is treated as a prior policy. Another RNN is then trained using reinforcement learning (RL) to generate higher-quality outputs that account for domain-specific incentives while retaining proximity to the prior policy of the MLE RNN. To formalize this objective, we derive novel off-policy RL methods for RNNs from KL-control. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated on two applications; 1) generating novel musical melodies, and 2) computational molecular generation. For both problems, we show that the proposed method improves the desired properties and structure of the generated sequences, while maintaining information learned from data.

* Add supplementary material 
  

A review of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) and its applications in a wide variety of disciplines -- From Medical to Remote Sensing

Oct 01, 2021
Ankan Dash, Junyi Ye, Guiling Wang

We look into Generative Adversarial Network (GAN), its prevalent variants and applications in a number of sectors. GANs combine two neural networks that compete against one another using zero-sum game theory, allowing them to create much crisper and discrete outputs. GANs can be used to perform image processing, video generation and prediction, among other computer vision applications. GANs can also be utilised for a variety of science-related activities, including protein engineering, astronomical data processing, remote sensing image dehazing, and crystal structure synthesis. Other notable fields where GANs have made gains include finance, marketing, fashion design, sports, and music. Therefore in this article we provide a comprehensive overview of the applications of GANs in a wide variety of disciplines. We first cover the theory supporting GAN, GAN variants, and the metrics to evaluate GANs. Then we present how GAN and its variants can be applied in twelve domains, ranging from STEM fields, such as astronomy and biology, to business fields, such as marketing and finance, and to arts, such as music. As a result, researchers from other fields may grasp how GANs work and apply them to their own study. To the best of our knowledge, this article provides the most comprehensive survey of GAN's applications in different fields.

* 41 pages, 10 figures, ACM Computing Surveys (under review) 
  

Medley2K: A Dataset of Medley Transitions

Aug 25, 2020
Lukas Faber, Sandro Luck, Damian Pascual, Andreas Roth, Gino Brunner, Roger Wattenhofer

The automatic generation of medleys, i.e., musical pieces formed by different songs concatenated via smooth transitions, is not well studied in the current literature. To facilitate research on this topic, we make available a dataset called Medley2K that consists of 2,000 medleys and 7,712 labeled transitions. Our dataset features a rich variety of song transitions across different music genres. We provide a detailed description of this dataset and validate it by training a state-of-the-art generative model in the task of generating transitions between songs.

* MML 2020 - 13th Int. Workshop on Machine Learning and Music at ECML-PKDD 2020 
  

Deep learning for molecular generation and optimization - a review of the state of the art

Mar 11, 2019
Daniel C. Elton, Zois Boukouvalas, Mark D. Fuge, Peter W. Chung

In the space of only a few years, deep generative modeling has revolutionized how we think of artificial creativity, yielding autonomous systems which produce original images, music, and text. Inspired by these successes, researchers are now applying deep generative modeling techniques to the generation and optimization of molecules - in our review we found 45 papers on the subject published in the past two years. These works point to a future where such systems will be used to generate lead molecules, greatly reducing resources spent downstream synthesizing and characterizing bad leads in the lab. In this review we survey the increasingly complex landscape of models and representation schemes that have been proposed. The four classes of techniques we describe are recursive neural networks, autoencoders, generative adversarial networks, and reinforcement learning. After first discussing some of the mathematical fundamentals of each technique, we draw high level connections and comparisons with other techniques and expose the pros and cons of each. Several important high level themes emerge as a result of this work, including the shift away from the SMILES string representation of molecules towards more sophisticated representations such as graph grammars and 3D representations, the importance of reward function design, the need for better standards for benchmarking and testing, and the benefits of adversarial training and reinforcement learning over maximum likelihood based training.

* 22 pages 
  

Learning long-term music representations via hierarchical contextual constraints

Feb 13, 2022
Shiqi Wei, Gus Xia

Learning symbolic music representations, especially disentangled representations with probabilistic interpretations, has been shown to benefit both music understanding and generation. However, most models are only applicable to short-term music, while learning long-term music representations remains a challenging task. We have seen several studies attempting to learn hierarchical representations directly in an end-to-end manner, but these models have not been able to achieve the desired results and the training process is not stable. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to learn long-term symbolic music representations through contextual constraints. First, we use contrastive learning to pre-train a long-term representation by constraining its difference from the short-term representation (extracted by an off-the-shelf model). Then, we fine-tune the long-term representation by a hierarchical prediction model such that a good long-term representation (e.g., an 8-bar representation) can reconstruct the corresponding short-term ones (e.g., the 2-bar representations within the 8-bar range). Experiments show that our method stabilizes the training and the fine-tuning steps. In addition, the designed contextual constraints benefit both reconstruction and disentanglement, significantly outperforming the baselines.

* Accepted by ISMIR2021 
  
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