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"music generation": models, code, and papers

Exploration in Interactive Personalized Music Recommendation: A Reinforcement Learning Approach

Nov 06, 2013
Xinxi Wang, Yi Wang, David Hsu, Ye Wang

Current music recommender systems typically act in a greedy fashion by recommending songs with the highest user ratings. Greedy recommendation, however, is suboptimal over the long term: it does not actively gather information on user preferences and fails to recommend novel songs that are potentially interesting. A successful recommender system must balance the needs to explore user preferences and to exploit this information for recommendation. This paper presents a new approach to music recommendation by formulating this exploration-exploitation trade-off as a reinforcement learning task called the multi-armed bandit. To learn user preferences, it uses a Bayesian model, which accounts for both audio content and the novelty of recommendations. A piecewise-linear approximation to the model and a variational inference algorithm are employed to speed up Bayesian inference. One additional benefit of our approach is a single unified model for both music recommendation and playlist generation. Both simulation results and a user study indicate strong potential for the new approach.

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Audio Defect Detection in Music with Deep Networks

Feb 11, 2022
Daniel Wolff, Rémi Mignot, Axel Roebel

With increasing amounts of music being digitally transferred from production to distribution, automatic means of determining media quality are needed. Protection mechanisms in digital audio processing tools have not eliminated the need of production entities located downstream the distribution chain to assess audio quality and detect defects inserted further upstream. Such analysis often relies on the received audio and scarce meta-data alone. Deliberate use of artefacts such as clicks in popular music as well as more recent defects stemming from corruption in modern audio encodings call for data-centric and context sensitive solutions for detection. We present a convolutional network architecture following end-to-end encoder decoder configuration to develop detectors for two exemplary audio defects. A click detector is trained and compared to a traditional signal processing method, with a discussion on context sensitivity. Additional post-processing is used for data augmentation and workflow simulation. The ability of our models to capture variance is explored in a detector for artefacts from decompression of corrupted MP3 compressed audio. For both tasks we describe the synthetic generation of artefacts for controlled detector training and evaluation. We evaluate our detectors on the large open-source Free Music Archive (FMA) and genre-specific datasets.

* Proceedings of the 22nd International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference, Online, 2021 
* 6 pages 
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Style Imitation and Chord Invention in Polyphonic Music with Exponential Families

Sep 16, 2016
Gaëtan Hadjeres, Jason Sakellariou, François Pachet

Modeling polyphonic music is a particularly challenging task because of the intricate interplay between melody and harmony. A good model should satisfy three requirements: statistical accuracy (capturing faithfully the statistics of correlations at various ranges, horizontally and vertically), flexibility (coping with arbitrary user constraints), and generalization capacity (inventing new material, while staying in the style of the training corpus). Models proposed so far fail on at least one of these requirements. We propose a statistical model of polyphonic music, based on the maximum entropy principle. This model is able to learn and reproduce pairwise statistics between neighboring note events in a given corpus. The model is also able to invent new chords and to harmonize unknown melodies. We evaluate the invention capacity of the model by assessing the amount of cited, re-discovered, and invented chords on a corpus of Bach chorales. We discuss how the model enables the user to specify and enforce user-defined constraints, which makes it useful for style-based, interactive music generation.

* 18 pages, 11 figures 
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PocketVAE: A Two-step Model for Groove Generation and Control

Jul 11, 2021
Kyungyun Lee, Wonil Kim, Juhan Nam

Creating a good drum track to imitate a skilled performer in digital audio workstations (DAWs) can be a time-consuming process, especially for those unfamiliar with drums. In this work, we introduce PocketVAE, a groove generation system that applies grooves to users' rudimentary MIDI tracks, i.e, templates. Grooves can be either transferred from a reference track, generated randomly or with conditions, such as genres. Our system, consisting of different modules for each groove component, takes a two-step approach that is analogous to a music creation process. First, the note module updates the user template through addition and deletion of notes; Second, the velocity and microtiming modules add details to this generated note score. In order to model the drum notes, we apply a discrete latent representation method via Vector Quantized Variational Autoencoder (VQ-VAE), as drum notes have a discrete property, unlike velocity and microtiming values. We show that our two-step approach and the usage of a discrete encoding space improves the learning of the original data distribution. Additionally, we discuss the benefit of incorporating control elements - genre, velocity and microtiming patterns - into the model.

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Discrete Contrastive Diffusion for Cross-Modal and Conditional Generation

Jun 15, 2022
Ye Zhu, Yu Wu, Kyle Olszewski, Jian Ren, Sergey Tulyakov, Yan Yan

Diffusion probabilistic models (DPMs) have become a popular approach to conditional generation, due to their promising results and support for cross-modal synthesis. A key desideratum in conditional synthesis is to achieve high correspondence between the conditioning input and generated output. Most existing methods learn such relationships implicitly, by incorporating the prior into the variational lower bound. In this work, we take a different route -- we enhance input-output connections by maximizing their mutual information using contrastive learning. To this end, we introduce a Conditional Discrete Contrastive Diffusion (CDCD) loss and design two contrastive diffusion mechanisms to effectively incorporate it into the denoising process. We formulate CDCD by connecting it with the conventional variational objectives. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach in evaluations with three diverse, multimodal conditional synthesis tasks: dance-to-music generation, text-to-image synthesis, and class-conditioned image synthesis. On each, we achieve state-of-the-art or higher synthesis quality and improve the input-output correspondence. Furthermore, the proposed approach improves the convergence of diffusion models, reducing the number of required diffusion steps by more than 35% on two benchmarks, significantly increasing the inference speed.

* Project at 
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Midi Miner -- A Python library for tonal tension and track classification

Oct 03, 2019
Rui Guo, Dorien Herremans, Thor Magnusson

We present a Python library, called Midi Miner, that can calculate tonal tension and classify different tracks. MIDI (Music Instrument Digital Interface) is a hardware and software standard for communicating musical events between digital music devices. It is often used for tasks such as music representation, communication between devices, and even music generation [5]. Tension is an essential element of the music listening experience, which can come from a number of musical features including timbre, loudness and harmony [3]. Midi Miner provides a Python implementation for the tonal tension model based on the spiral array [1] as presented by Herremans and Chew [4]. Midi Miner also performs key estimation and includes a track classifier that can disentangle melody, bass, and harmony tracks. Even though tracks are often separated in MIDI files, the musical function of each track is not always clear. The track classifier keeps the identified tracks and discards messy tracks, which can enable further analysis and training tasks.

* 2 pages. ISMIR - Late Breaking Demo, Delft, The Netherlands. November 2019 
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Neural Drum Machine : An Interactive System for Real-time Synthesis of Drum Sounds

Jul 04, 2019
Cyran Aouameur, Philippe Esling, Gaëtan Hadjeres

In this work, we introduce a system for real-time generation of drum sounds. This system is composed of two parts: a generative model for drum sounds together with a Max4Live plugin providing intuitive controls on the generative process. The generative model consists of a Conditional Wasserstein autoencoder (CWAE), which learns to generate Mel-scaled magnitude spectrograms of short percussion samples, coupled with a Multi-Head Convolutional Neural Network (MCNN) which estimates the corresponding audio signal from the magnitude spectrogram. The design of this model makes it lightweight, so that it allows one to perform real-time generation of novel drum sounds on an average CPU, removing the need for the users to possess dedicated hardware in order to use this system. We then present our Max4Live interface designed to interact with this generative model. With this setup, the system can be easily integrated into a studio-production environment and enhance the creative process. Finally, we discuss the advantages of our system and how the interaction of music producers with such tools could change the way drum tracks are composed.

* 8 pages, accepted at the International Conference on Computational Creativity 2019 
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Evaluation of Latent Space Disentanglement in the Presence of Interdependent Attributes

Oct 11, 2021
Karn N. Watcharasupat, Alexander Lerch

Controllable music generation with deep generative models has become increasingly reliant on disentanglement learning techniques. However, current disentanglement metrics, such as mutual information gap (MIG), are often inadequate and misleading when used for evaluating latent representations in the presence of interdependent semantic attributes often encountered in real-world music datasets. In this work, we propose a dependency-aware information metric as a drop-in replacement for MIG that accounts for the inherent relationship between semantic attributes.

* Submitted to the Late-Breaking Demo Session of the 22nd International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference 
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Youling: an AI-Assisted Lyrics Creation System

Jan 18, 2022
Rongsheng Zhang, Xiaoxi Mao, Le Li, Lin Jiang, Lin Chen, Zhiwei Hu, Yadong Xi, Changjie Fan, Minlie Huang

Recently, a variety of neural models have been proposed for lyrics generation. However, most previous work completes the generation process in a single pass with little human intervention. We believe that lyrics creation is a creative process with human intelligence centered. AI should play a role as an assistant in the lyrics creation process, where human interactions are crucial for high-quality creation. This paper demonstrates \textit{Youling}, an AI-assisted lyrics creation system, designed to collaborate with music creators. In the lyrics generation process, \textit{Youling} supports traditional one pass full-text generation mode as well as an interactive generation mode, which allows users to select the satisfactory sentences from generated candidates conditioned on preceding context. The system also provides a revision module which enables users to revise undesired sentences or words of lyrics repeatedly. Besides, \textit{Youling} allows users to use multifaceted attributes to control the content and format of generated lyrics. The demo video of the system is available at

* accept by emnlp2020 demo track 
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Harmonic Recomposition using Conditional Autoregressive Modeling

Nov 18, 2018
Kyle Kastner, Rithesh Kumar, Tim Cooijmans, Aaron Courville

We demonstrate a conditional autoregressive pipeline for efficient music recomposition, based on methods presented in van den Oord et al.(2017). Recomposition (Casal & Casey, 2010) focuses on reworking existing musical pieces, adhering to structure at a high level while also re-imagining other aspects of the work. This can involve reuse of pre-existing themes or parts of the original piece, while also requiring the flexibility to generate new content at different levels of granularity. Applying the aforementioned modeling pipeline to recomposition, we show diverse and structured generation conditioned on chord sequence annotations.

* 3 pages, 2 figures. In Proceedings of The Joint Workshop on Machine Learning for Music, ICML 2018 
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