This work presents an automatic human gender and age group recognition system based on human facial images. It makes an extensive experiment with row pixel intensity valued features and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficient features with Principal Component Analysis and k-Nearest Neighbor classification to identify the best recognition approach. The final results show approaches using DCT coefficient outperform their counter parts resulting in a 99% correct gender recognition rate and 68% correct age group recognition rate (considering four distinct age groups) in unseen test images. Detailed experimental settings and obtained results are clearly presented and explained in this report.
Facial expression recognition (FER), aiming to classify the expression present in the facial image or video, has attracted a lot of research interests in the field of artificial intelligence and multimedia. In terms of video based FER task, it is sensible to capture the dynamic expression variation among the frames to recognize facial expression. However, existing methods directly utilize CNN-RNN or 3D CNN to extract the spatial-temporal features from different facial units, instead of concentrating on a certain region during expression variation capturing, which leads to limited performance in FER. In our paper, we introduce a Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) layer into a common CNN-RNN based model for video-based FER. First, the GCN layer is utilized to learn more significant facial expression features which concentrate on certain regions after sharing information between extracted CNN features of nodes. Then, a LSTM layer is applied to learn long-term dependencies among the GCN learned features to model the variation. In addition, a weight assignment mechanism is also designed to weight the output of different nodes for final classification by characterizing the expression intensities in each frame. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time to use GCN in FER task. We evaluate our method on three widely-used datasets, CK+, Oulu-CASIA and MMI, and also one challenging wild dataset AFEW8.0, and the experimental results demonstrate that our method has superior performance to existing methods.
The facial expression recognition is an ocular task that can be performed without human discomfort, is really a speedily growing on the computer research field. There are many applications and programs uses facial expression to evaluate human character, judgment, feelings, and viewpoint. The process of recognizing facial expression is a hard task due to the several circumstances such as facial occlusions, face shape, illumination, face colors, and etc. This paper present a PCA methodology to distinguish expressions of faces under different circumstances and identifying it. Relies on Eigen faces technique using standard Data base images. So as to overcome the problem of difficulty to computers to identify the features and expressions of persons.
In this work, we propose a novel Generative Adversarial Stacked Autoencoder that learns to map facial expressions, with up to plus or minus 60 degrees, to an illumination invariant facial representation of 0 degrees. We accomplish this by using a novel convolutional layer that exploits both local and global spatial information, and a convolutional layer with a reduced number of parameters that exploits facial symmetry. Furthermore, we introduce a generative adversarial gradual greedy layer-wise learning algorithm designed to train Adversarial Autoencoders in an efficient and incremental manner. We demonstrate the efficiency of our method and report state-of-the-art performance on several facial emotion recognition corpora, including one collected in the wild.
In this paper, we develop a new method that recognizes facial expressions, on the basis of an innovative local motion patterns feature, with three main contributions. The first one is the analysis of the face skin temporal elasticity and face deformations during expression. The second one is a unified approach for both macro and micro expression recognition. And, the third one is the step forward towards in-the-wild expression recognition, dealing with challenges such as various intensity and various expression activation patterns, illumination variation and small head pose variations. Our method outperforms state-of-the-art methods for micro expression recognition and positions itself among top-rank state-of-the-art methods for macro expression recognition.
Expressing and identifying emotions through facial and physical expressions is a significant part of social interaction. Emotion recognition is an essential task in computer vision due to its various applications and mainly for allowing a more natural interaction between humans and machines. The common approaches for emotion recognition focus on analyzing facial expressions and requires the automatic localization of the face in the image. Although these methods can correctly classify emotion in controlled scenarios, such techniques are limited when dealing with unconstrained daily interactions. We propose a new deep learning approach for emotion recognition based on adaptive multi-cues that extract information from context and body poses, which humans commonly use in social interaction and communication. We compare the proposed approach with the state-of-art approaches in the CAER-S dataset, evaluating different components in a pipeline that reached an accuracy of 89.30%
The recent availability of low-power neural accelerator hardware, combined with improvements in end-to-end neural facial recognition algorithms provides, enabling technology for on-device facial authentication. The present research work examines the effects of directional lighting on a State-of-Art(SoA) neural face recognizer. A synthetic re-lighting technique is used to augment data samples due to the lack of public data-sets with sufficient directional lighting variations. Top lighting and its variants (top-left, top-right) are found to have minimal effect on accuracy, while bottom-left or bottom-right directional lighting has the most pronounced effects. Following the fine-tuning of network weights, the face recognition model is shown to achieve close to the original Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC)performance across all lighting conditions and demonstrates an ability to generalize beyond the lighting augmentations used in the fine-tuning data-set. This work shows that an SoA neural face recognition model can be tuned to compensate for directional lighting effects, removing the need for a pre-processing step before applying facial recognition.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) caused by prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a series of cranio-facial anomalies, and behavioral and neurocognitive problems. Current diagnosis of FAS is typically done by identifying a set of facial characteristics, which are often obtained by manual examination. Anatomical landmark detection, which provides rich geometric information, is important to detect the presence of FAS associated facial anomalies. This imaging application is characterized by large variations in data appearance and limited availability of labeled data. Current deep learning-based heatmap regression methods designed for facial landmark detection in natural images assume availability of large datasets and are therefore not wellsuited for this application. To address this restriction, we develop a new regularized transfer learning approach that exploits the knowledge of a network learned on large facial recognition datasets. In contrast to standard transfer learning which focuses on adjusting the pre-trained weights, the proposed learning approach regularizes the model behavior. It explicitly reuses the rich visual semantics of a domain-similar source model on the target task data as an additional supervisory signal for regularizing landmark detection optimization. Specifically, we develop four regularization constraints for the proposed transfer learning, including constraining the feature outputs from classification and intermediate layers, as well as matching activation attention maps in both spatial and channel levels. Experimental evaluation on a collected clinical imaging dataset demonstrate that the proposed approach can effectively improve model generalizability under limited training samples, and is advantageous to other approaches in the literature.
This paper is aimed at developing and combining different algorithms for face detection and face recognition to generate an efficient mechanism that can detect and recognize the facial regions of input image. For the detection of face from complex region, skin segmentation isolates the face-like regions in a complex image and following operations of morphology and template matching rejects false matches to extract facial region. For the recognition of the face, the image database is now converted into a database of facial segments. Hence, implementing the technique of Elastic Bunch Graph matching (EBGM) after skin segmentation generates Face Bunch Graphs that acutely represents the features of an individual face enhances the quality of the training set. This increases the matching probability significantly.
Facial cosmetics have the ability to substantially alter the facial appearance, which can negatively affect the decisions of a face recognition. In addition, it was recently shown that the application of makeup can be abused to launch so-called makeup presentation attacks. In such attacks, the attacker might apply heavy makeup in order to achieve the facial appearance of a target subject for the purpose of impersonation. In this work, we assess the vulnerability of a COTS face recognition system to makeup presentation attacks employing the publicly available Makeup Induced Face Spoofing (MIFS) database. It is shown that makeup presentation attacks might seriously impact the security of the face recognition system. Further, we propose an attack detection scheme which distinguishes makeup presentation attacks from genuine authentication attempts by analysing differences in deep face representations obtained from potential makeup presentation attacks and corresponding target face images. The proposed detection system employs a machine learning-based classifier, which is trained with synthetically generated makeup presentation attacks utilizing a generative adversarial network for facial makeup transfer in conjunction with image warping. Experimental evaluations conducted using the MIFS database reveal a detection equal error rate of 0.7% for the task of separating genuine authentication attempts from makeup presentation attacks.