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"facial recognition": models, code, and papers

End-To-End Face Detection and Recognition

Mar 31, 2017
Liying Chi, Hongxin Zhang, Mingxiu Chen

Plenty of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed and got delightful results in decades. Common face recognition pipeline consists of: 1) face detection, 2) face alignment, 3) feature extraction, 4) similarity calculation, which are separated and independent from each other. The separated face analyzing stages lead the model redundant calculation and are hard for end-to-end training. In this paper, we proposed a novel end-to-end trainable convolutional network framework for face detection and recognition, in which a geometric transformation matrix was directly learned to align the faces, instead of predicting the facial landmarks. In training stage, our single CNN model is supervised only by face bounding boxes and personal identities, which are publicly available from WIDER FACE \cite{Yang2016} dataset and CASIA-WebFace \cite{Yi2014} dataset. Tested on Face Detection Dataset and Benchmark (FDDB) \cite{Jain2010} dataset and Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW) \cite{Huang2007} dataset, we have achieved 89.24\% recall for face detection task and 98.63\% verification accuracy for face recognition task simultaneously, which are comparable to state-of-the-art results.

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Partial matching face recognition method for rehabilitation nursing robots beds

Aug 02, 2015
Dongmei Liang, Wushan Cheng

In order to establish face recognition system in rehabilitation nursing robots beds and achieve real-time monitor the patient on the bed. We propose a face recognition method based on partial matching Hu moments which apply for rehabilitation nursing robots beds. Firstly we using Haar classifier to detect human faces automatically in dynamic video frames. Secondly we using Otsu threshold method to extract facial features (eyebrows, eyes, mouth) in the face image and its Hu moments. Finally, we using Hu moment feature set to achieve the automatic face recognition. Experimental results show that this method can efficiently identify face in a dynamic video and it has high practical value (the accuracy rate is 91% and the average recognition time is 4.3s).

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A Facial Expression Classification System Integrating Canny, Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Network

Nov 17, 2011
Le Hoang Thai, Nguyen Do Thai Nguyen, Tran Son Hai

Facial Expression Classification is an interesting research problem in recent years. There are a lot of methods to solve this problem. In this research, we propose a novel approach using Canny, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Network. Firstly, in preprocessing phase, we use Canny for local region detection of facial images. Then each of local region's features will be presented based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally, using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)applies for Facial Expression Classification. We apply our proposal method (Canny_PCA_ANN) for recognition of six basic facial expressions on JAFFE database consisting 213 images posed by 10 Japanese female models. The experimental result shows the feasibility of our proposal method.

* International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2011, 388-393 
* 6 pages, 10 figures, International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing, Vol. 1, No. 4, October 2011, ISSN (Online): 2010-3700, 
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Preventing Personal Data Theft in Images with Adversarial ML

Oct 20, 2020
Thomas Cilloni, Wei Wang, Charles Walter, Charles Fleming

Facial recognition tools are becoming exceptionally accurate in identifying people from images. However, this comes at the cost of privacy for users of online services with photo management (e.g. social media platforms). Particularly troubling is the ability to leverage unsupervised learning to recognize faces even when the user has not labeled their images. This is made simpler by modern facial recognition tools, such as FaceNet, that use encoders to generate low dimensional embeddings that can be clustered to learn previously unknown faces. In this paper, we propose a strategy to generate non-invasive noise masks to apply to facial images for a newly introduced user, yielding adversarial examples and preventing the formation of identifiable clusters in the embedding space. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by showing that various classification and clustering methods cannot reliably cluster the adversarial examples we generate.

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The Deeper, the Better: Analysis of Person Attributes Recognition

Jan 11, 2019
Esube Bekele, Wallace Lawson

In person attributes recognition, we describe a person in terms of their appearance. Typically, this includes a wide range of traits including age, gender, clothing, and footwear. Although this could be used in a wide variety of scenarios, it generally is applied to video surveillance, where attribute recognition is impacted by low resolution, and other issues such as variable pose, occlusion and shadow. Recent approaches have used deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to improve the accuracy in person attribute recognition. However, many of these networks are relatively shallow and it is unclear to what extent they use contextual cues to improve classification accuracy. In this paper, we propose deeper methods for person attribute recognition. Interpreting the reasons behind the classification is highly important, as it can provide insight into how the classifier is making decisions. Interpretation suggests that deeper networks generally take more contextual information into consideration, which helps improve classification accuracy and generalizability. We present experimental analysis and results for whole body attributes using the PA-100K and PETA datasets and facial attributes using the CelebA dataset.

* 8 pages, 34 png figures and 1 pdf figure, uses FG2019.sty, submitted to FG2019 
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Face Expression Recognition and Analysis: The State of the Art

Mar 30, 2012
Vinay Bettadapura

The automatic recognition of facial expressions has been an active research topic since the early nineties. There have been several advances in the past few years in terms of face detection and tracking, feature extraction mechanisms and the techniques used for expression classification. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2001 till date. The paper presents a time-line view of the advances made in this field, the applications of automatic face expression recognizers, the characteristics of an ideal system, the databases that have been used and the advances made in terms of their standardization and a detailed summary of the state of the art. The paper also discusses facial parameterization using FACS Action Units (AUs) and MPEG-4 Facial Animation Parameters (FAPs) and the recent advances in face detection, tracking and feature extraction methods. Notes have also been presented on emotions, expressions and facial features, discussion on the six prototypic expressions and the recent studies on expression classifiers. The paper ends with a note on the challenges and the future work. This paper has been written in a tutorial style with the intention of helping students and researchers who are new to this field.

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Self-supervised Contrastive Learning of Multi-view Facial Expressions

Aug 15, 2021
Shuvendu Roy, Ali Etemad

Facial expression recognition (FER) has emerged as an important component of human-computer interaction systems. Despite recent advancements in FER, performance often drops significantly for non-frontal facial images. We propose Contrastive Learning of Multi-view facial Expressions (CL-MEx) to exploit facial images captured simultaneously from different angles towards FER. CL-MEx is a two-step training framework. In the first step, an encoder network is pre-trained with the proposed self-supervised contrastive loss, where it learns to generate view-invariant embeddings for different views of a subject. The model is then fine-tuned with labeled data in a supervised setting. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method on two multi-view FER datasets, KDEF and DDCF, where state-of-the-art performances are achieved. Further experiments show the robustness of our method in dealing with challenging angles and reduced amounts of labeled data.

* Accepted by 23rd ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interaction (ICMI 2021) 
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Surveillance Face Recognition Challenge

Aug 29, 2018
Zhiyi Cheng, Xiatian Zhu, Shaogang Gong

Face recognition (FR) is one of the most extensively investigated problems in computer vision. Significant progress in FR has been made due to the recent introduction of the larger scale FR challenges, particularly with constrained social media web images, e.g. high-resolution photos of celebrity faces taken by professional photo-journalists. However, the more challenging FR in unconstrained and low-resolution surveillance images remains largely under-studied. To facilitate more studies on developing FR models that are effective and robust for low-resolution surveillance facial images, we introduce a new Surveillance Face Recognition Challenge, which we call the QMUL-SurvFace benchmark. This new benchmark is the largest and more importantly the only true surveillance FR benchmark to our best knowledge, where low-resolution images are not synthesised by artificial down-sampling of native high-resolution images. This challenge contains 463,507 face images of 15,573 distinct identities captured in real-world uncooperative surveillance scenes over wide space and time. As a consequence, it presents an extremely challenging FR benchmark. We benchmark the FR performance on this challenge using five representative deep learning face recognition models, in comparison to existing benchmarks. We show that the current state of the arts are still far from being satisfactory to tackle the under-investigated surveillance FR problem in practical forensic scenarios. Face recognition is generally more difficult in an open-set setting which is typical for surveillance scenarios, owing to a large number of non-target people (distractors) appearing open spaced scenes. This is evidently so that on the new Surveillance FR Challenge, the top-performing CentreFace deep learning FR model on the MegaFace benchmark can now only achieve 13.2% success rate (at Rank-20) at a 10% false alarm rate.

* The QMUL-SurvFace challenge is publicly available at 
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Deformable Convolutional LSTM for Human Body Emotion Recognition

Oct 27, 2020
Peyman Tahghighi, Abbas Koochari, Masoume Jalali

People represent their emotions in a myriad of ways. Among the most important ones is whole body expressions which have many applications in different fields such as human-computer interaction (HCI). One of the most important challenges in human emotion recognition is that people express the same feeling in various ways using their face and their body. Recently many methods have tried to overcome these challenges using Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). However, most of these methods were based on images or on facial expressions only and did not consider deformation that may happen in the images such as scaling and rotation which can adversely affect the recognition accuracy. In this work, motivated by recent researches on deformable convolutions, we incorporate the deformable behavior into the core of convolutional long short-term memory (ConvLSTM) to improve robustness to these deformations in the image and, consequently, improve its accuracy on the emotion recognition task from videos of arbitrary length. We did experiments on the GEMEP dataset and achieved state-of-the-art accuracy of 98.8% on the task of whole human body emotion recognition on the validation set.

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A Survey of Automatic Facial Micro-expression Analysis: Databases, Methods and Challenges

Jun 15, 2018
Yee-Hui Oh, John See, Anh Cat Le Ngo, Raphael Chung-Wei Phan, Vishnu Monn Baskaran

Over the last few years, automatic facial micro-expression analysis has garnered increasing attention from experts across different disciplines because of its potential applications in various fields such as clinical diagnosis, forensic investigation and security systems. Advances in computer algorithms and video acquisition technology have rendered machine analysis of facial micro-expressions possible today, in contrast to decades ago when it was primarily the domain of psychiatrists where analysis was largely manual. Indeed, although the study of facial micro-expressions is a well-established field in psychology, it is still relatively new from the computational perspective with many interesting problems. In this survey, we present a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art databases and methods for micro-expressions spotting and recognition. Individual stages involved in the automation of these tasks are also described and reviewed at length. In addition, we also deliberate on the challenges and future directions in this growing field of automatic facial micro-expression analysis.

* 45 pages, single column preprint version. Submitted: 2 December 2017, Accepted: 12 June 2018 to Frontiers in Psychology 
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