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"facial recognition": models, code, and papers

Video-based Facial Micro-Expression Analysis: A Survey of Datasets, Features and Algorithms

Feb 16, 2022
Xianye Ben, Yi Ren, Junping Zhang, Su-Jing Wang, Kidiyo Kpalma, Weixiao Meng, Yong-Jin Liu

Unlike the conventional facial expressions, micro-expressions are involuntary and transient facial expressions capable of revealing the genuine emotions that people attempt to hide. Therefore, they can provide important information in a broad range of applications such as lie detection, criminal detection, etc. Since micro-expressions are transient and of low intensity, however, their detection and recognition is difficult and relies heavily on expert experiences. Due to its intrinsic particularity and complexity, video-based micro-expression analysis is attractive but challenging, and has recently become an active area of research. Although there have been numerous developments in this area, thus far there has been no comprehensive survey that provides researchers with a systematic overview of these developments with a unified evaluation. Accordingly, in this survey paper, we first highlight the key differences between macro- and micro-expressions, then use these differences to guide our research survey of video-based micro-expression analysis in a cascaded structure, encompassing the neuropsychological basis, datasets, features, spotting algorithms, recognition algorithms, applications and evaluation of state-of-the-art approaches. For each aspect, the basic techniques, advanced developments and major challenges are addressed and discussed. Furthermore, after considering the limitations of existing micro-expression datasets, we present and release a new dataset - called micro-and-macro expression warehouse (MMEW) - containing more video samples and more labeled emotion types. We then perform a unified comparison of representative methods on CAS(ME)2 for spotting, and on MMEW and SAMM for recognition, respectively. Finally, some potential future research directions are explored and outlined.

  
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Towards Privacy-Preserving Affect Recognition: A Two-Level Deep Learning Architecture

Nov 14, 2021
Jimiama M. Mase, Natalie Leesakul, Fan Yang, Grazziela P. Figueredo, Mercedes Torres Torres

Automatically understanding and recognising human affective states using images and computer vision can improve human-computer and human-robot interaction. However, privacy has become an issue of great concern, as the identities of people used to train affective models can be exposed in the process. For instance, malicious individuals could exploit images from users and assume their identities. In addition, affect recognition using images can lead to discriminatory and algorithmic bias, as certain information such as race, gender, and age could be assumed based on facial features. Possible solutions to protect the privacy of users and avoid misuse of their identities are to: (1) extract anonymised facial features, namely action units (AU) from a database of images, discard the images and use AUs for processing and training, and (2) federated learning (FL) i.e. process raw images in users' local machines (local processing) and send the locally trained models to the main processing machine for aggregation (central processing). In this paper, we propose a two-level deep learning architecture for affect recognition that uses AUs in level 1 and FL in level 2 to protect users' identities. The architecture consists of recurrent neural networks to capture the temporal relationships amongst the features and predict valence and arousal affective states. In our experiments, we evaluate the performance of our privacy-preserving architecture using different variations of recurrent neural networks on RECOLA, a comprehensive multimodal affective database. Our results show state-of-the-art performance of $0.426$ for valence and $0.401$ for arousal using the Concordance Correlation Coefficient evaluation metric, demonstrating the feasibility of developing models for affect recognition that are both accurate and ensure privacy.

* 8 pages, 6 figures, 4 tables 
  
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Facial Emotion Recognition Using Deep Learning

Oct 19, 2019
Ching-Da Wu, Li-Heng Chen

We aim to construct a system that captures real-world facial images through the front camera on a laptop. The system is capable of processing/recognizing the captured image and predict a result in real-time. In this system, we exploit the power of deep learning technique to learn a facial emotion recognition (FER) model based on a set of labeled facial images. Finally, experiments are conducted to evaluate our model using largely used public database.

* 5 pages, 7 figures, 4 tables 
  
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2D+3D Facial Expression Recognition via Discriminative Dynamic Range Enhancement and Multi-Scale Learning

Nov 16, 2020
Yang Jiao, Yi Niu, Trac D. Tran, Guangming Shi

In 2D+3D facial expression recognition (FER), existing methods generate multi-view geometry maps to enhance the depth feature representation. However, this may introduce false estimations due to local plane fitting from incomplete point clouds. In this paper, we propose a novel Map Generation technique from the viewpoint of information theory, to boost the slight 3D expression differences from strong personality variations. First, we examine the HDR depth data to extract the discriminative dynamic range $r_{dis}$, and maximize the entropy of $r_{dis}$ to a global optimum. Then, to prevent the large deformation caused by over-enhancement, we introduce a depth distortion constraint and reduce the complexity from $O(KN^2)$ to $O(KN\tau)$. Furthermore, the constrained optimization is modeled as a $K$-edges maximum weight path problem in a directed acyclic graph, and we solve it efficiently via dynamic programming. Finally, we also design an efficient Facial Attention structure to automatically locate subtle discriminative facial parts for multi-scale learning, and train it with a proposed loss function $\mathcal{L}_{FA}$ without any facial landmarks. Experimental results on different datasets show that the proposed method is effective and outperforms the state-of-the-art 2D+3D FER methods in both FER accuracy and the output entropy of the generated maps.

  
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Landmark Guidance Independent Spatio-channel Attention and Complementary Context Information based Facial Expression Recognition

Jul 20, 2020
Darshan Gera, S Balasubramanian

A recent trend to recognize facial expressions in the real-world scenario is to deploy attention based convolutional neural networks (CNNs) locally to signify the importance of facial regions and, combine it with global facial features and/or other complementary context information for performance gain. However, in the presence of occlusions and pose variations, different channels respond differently, and further that the response intensity of a channel differ across spatial locations. Also, modern facial expression recognition(FER) architectures rely on external sources like landmark detectors for defining attention. Failure of landmark detector will have a cascading effect on FER. Additionally, there is no emphasis laid on the relevance of features that are input to compute complementary context information. Leveraging on the aforementioned observations, an end-to-end architecture for FER is proposed in this work that obtains both local and global attention per channel per spatial location through a novel spatio-channel attention net (SCAN), without seeking any information from the landmark detectors. SCAN is complemented by a complementary context information (CCI) branch. Further, using efficient channel attention (ECA), the relevance of features input to CCI is also attended to. The representation learnt by the proposed architecture is robust to occlusions and pose variations. Robustness and superior performance of the proposed model is demonstrated on both in-lab and in-the-wild datasets (AffectNet, FERPlus, RAF-DB, FED-RO, SFEW, CK+, Oulu-CASIA and JAFFE) along with a couple of constructed face mask datasets resembling masked faces in COVID-19 scenario. Codes will be made publicly available.

  
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Landmark-Aware and Part-based Ensemble Transfer Learning Network for Facial Expression Recognition from Static images

Apr 22, 2021
Rohan Wadhawan, Tapan K. Gandhi

Facial Expression Recognition from static images is a challenging problem in computer vision applications. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), the state-of-the-art method for various computer vision tasks, has had limited success in predicting expressions from faces having extreme poses, illumination, and occlusion conditions. To mitigate this issue, CNNs are often accompanied by techniques like transfer, multi-task, or ensemble learning that often provide high accuracy at the cost of high computational complexity. In this work, we propose a Part-based Ensemble Transfer Learning network, which models how humans recognize facial expressions by correlating the spatial orientation pattern of the facial features with a specific expression. It consists of 5 sub-networks, in which each sub-network performs transfer learning from one of the five subsets of facial landmarks: eyebrows, eyes, nose, mouth, or jaw to expression classification. We test the proposed network on the CK+, JAFFE, and SFEW datasets, and it outperforms the benchmark for CK+ and JAFFE datasets by 0.51\% and 5.34\%, respectively. Additionally, it consists of a total of 1.65M model parameters and requires only 3.28 $\times$ $10^{6}$ FLOPS, which ensures computational efficiency for real-time deployment. Grad-CAM visualizations of our proposed ensemble highlight the complementary nature of its sub-networks, a key design parameter of an effective ensemble network. Lastly, cross-dataset evaluation results reveal that our proposed ensemble has a high generalization capacity. Our model trained on the SFEW Train dataset achieves an accuracy of 47.53\% on the CK+ dataset, which is higher than what it achieves on the SFEW Valid dataset.

  
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The Analysis of Facial Feature Deformation using Optical Flow Algorithm

Oct 23, 2020
Dayang Nur Zulhijah Awang Jesemi, Hamimah Ujir, Irwandi Hipiny, Sarah Flora Samson Juan

Facial features deformed according to the intended facial expression. Specific facial features are associated with specific facial expression, i.e. happy means the deformation of mouth. This paper presents the study of facial feature deformation for each facial expression by using an optical flow algorithm and segmented into three different regions of interest. The deformation of facial features shows the relation between facial the and facial expression. Based on the experiments, the deformations of eye and mouth are significant in all expressions except happy. For happy expression, cheeks and mouths are the significant regions. This work also suggests that different facial features' intensity varies in the way that they contribute to the recognition of the different facial expression intensity. The maximum magnitude across all expressions is shown by the mouth for surprise expression which is 9x10-4. While the minimum magnitude is shown by the mouth for angry expression which is 0.4x10-4.

* IJEECS, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 769-777 (2019) 
* 8 pages 
  
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Deep 3D Face Identification

Mar 30, 2017
Donghyun Kim, Matthias Hernandez, Jongmoo Choi, Gerard Medioni

We propose a novel 3D face recognition algorithm using a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) and a 3D augmentation technique. The performance of 2D face recognition algorithms has significantly increased by leveraging the representational power of deep neural networks and the use of large-scale labeled training data. As opposed to 2D face recognition, training discriminative deep features for 3D face recognition is very difficult due to the lack of large-scale 3D face datasets. In this paper, we show that transfer learning from a CNN trained on 2D face images can effectively work for 3D face recognition by fine-tuning the CNN with a relatively small number of 3D facial scans. We also propose a 3D face augmentation technique which synthesizes a number of different facial expressions from a single 3D face scan. Our proposed method shows excellent recognition results on Bosphorus, BU-3DFE, and 3D-TEC datasets, without using hand-crafted features. The 3D identification using our deep features also scales well for large databases.

* 9 pages, 5 figures, 2 tables 
  
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