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"cancer detection": models, code, and papers

Nanorobot queue: Cooperative treatment of cancer based on team member communication and image processing

Nov 23, 2021
Xinyu Zhou

Although nanorobots have been used as clinical prescriptions for work such as gastroscopy, and even photoacoustic tomography technology has been proposed to control nanorobots to deliver drugs at designated delivery points in real time, and there are cases of eliminating "superbacteria" in blood through nanorobots, most technologies are immature, either with low efficiency or low accuracy, Either it can not be mass produced, so the most effective way to treat cancer diseases at this stage is through chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Patients are suffering and can not be cured. Therefore, this paper proposes an ideal model of a treatment method that can completely cure cancer, a cooperative treatment method based on nano robot queue through team member communication and computer vision image classification (target detection).

* 9pages,4figures 
  

Quantifying the Scanner-Induced Domain Gap in Mitosis Detection

Mar 30, 2021
Marc Aubreville, Christof Bertram, Mitko Veta, Robert Klopfleisch, Nikolas Stathonikos, Katharina Breininger, Natalie ter Hoeve, Francesco Ciompi, Andreas Maier

Automated detection of mitotic figures in histopathology images has seen vast improvements, thanks to modern deep learning-based pipelines. Application of these methods, however, is in practice limited by strong variability of images between labs. This results in a domain shift of the images, which causes a performance drop of the models. Hypothesizing that the scanner device plays a decisive role in this effect, we evaluated the susceptibility of a standard mitosis detection approach to the domain shift introduced by using a different whole slide scanner. Our work is based on the MICCAI-MIDOG challenge 2021 data set, which includes 200 tumor cases of human breast cancer and four scanners. Our work indicates that the domain shift induced not by biochemical variability but purely by the choice of acquisition device is underestimated so far. Models trained on images of the same scanner yielded an average F1 score of 0.683, while models trained on a single other scanner only yielded an average F1 score of 0.325. Training on another multi-domain mitosis dataset led to mean F1 scores of 0.52. We found this not to be reflected by domain-shifts measured as proxy A distance-derived metric.

* 3 pages, 1 figure, 1 table, submitted as short paper to MIDL 
  

Neural Networks for Infectious Diseases Detection: Prospects and Challenges

Dec 07, 2021
Muhammad Azeem, Shumaila Javaid, Hamza Fahim, Nasir Saeed

Artificial neural network (ANN) ability to learn, correct errors, and transform a large amount of raw data into useful medical decisions for treatment and care have increased its popularity for enhanced patient safety and quality of care. Therefore, this paper reviews the critical role of ANNs in providing valuable insights for patients' healthcare decisions and efficient disease diagnosis. We thoroughly review different types of ANNs presented in the existing literature that advanced ANNs adaptation for complex applications. Moreover, we also investigate ANN's advances for various disease diagnoses and treatments such as viral, skin, cancer, and COVID-19. Furthermore, we propose a novel deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model called ConXNet for improving the detection accuracy of COVID-19 disease. ConXNet is trained and tested using different datasets, and it achieves more than 97% detection accuracy and precision, which is significantly better than existing models. Finally, we highlight future research directions and challenges such as complexity of the algorithms, insufficient available data, privacy and security, and integration of biosensing with ANNs. These research directions require considerable attention for improving the scope of ANNs for medical diagnostic and treatment applications.

* Submitted to IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics 
  

Intelligent Sight and Sound: A Chronic Cancer Pain Dataset

Apr 07, 2022
Catherine Ordun, Alexandra N. Cha, Edward Raff, Byron Gaskin, Alex Hanson, Mason Rule, Sanjay Purushotham, James L. Gulley

Cancer patients experience high rates of chronic pain throughout the treatment process. Assessing pain for this patient population is a vital component of psychological and functional well-being, as it can cause a rapid deterioration of quality of life. Existing work in facial pain detection often have deficiencies in labeling or methodology that prevent them from being clinically relevant. This paper introduces the first chronic cancer pain dataset, collected as part of the Intelligent Sight and Sound (ISS) clinical trial, guided by clinicians to help ensure that model findings yield clinically relevant results. The data collected to date consists of 29 patients, 509 smartphone videos, 189,999 frames, and self-reported affective and activity pain scores adopted from the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Using static images and multi-modal data to predict self-reported pain levels, early models show significant gaps between current methods available to predict pain today, with room for improvement. Due to the especially sensitive nature of the inherent Personally Identifiable Information (PII) of facial images, the dataset will be released under the guidance and control of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

* Published as conference paper at the 35th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2021) Track on Datasets and Benchmarks 
  

Skin Cancer Diagnostics with an All-Inclusive Smartphone Application

May 25, 2022
Upender Kalwa, Christopher Legner, Taejoon Kong, Santosh Pandey

Among the different types of skin cancer, melanoma is considered to be the deadliest and is difficult to treat at advanced stages. Detection of melanoma at earlier stages can lead to reduced mortality rates. Desktop-based computer-aided systems have been developed to assist dermatologists with early diagnosis. However, there is significant interest in developing portable, at-home melanoma diagnostic systems which can assess the risk of cancerous skin lesions. Here, we present a smartphone application that combines image capture capabilities with preprocessing and segmentation to extract the Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color variegation, and Diameter (ABCD) features of a skin lesion. Using the feature sets, classification of malignancy is achieved through support vector machine classifiers. By using adaptive algorithms in the individual data-processing stages, our approach is made computationally light, user friendly, and reliable in discriminating melanoma cases from benign ones. Images of skin lesions are either captured with the smartphone camera or imported from public datasets. The entire process from image capture to classification runs on an Android smartphone equipped with a detachable 10x lens, and processes an image in less than a second. The overall performance metrics are evaluated on a public database of 200 images with Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE) (80% sensitivity, 90% specificity, 88% accuracy, and 0.85 area under curve (AUC)) and without SMOTE (55% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 90% accuracy, and 0.75 AUC). The evaluated performance metrics and computation times are comparable or better than previous methods. This all-inclusive smartphone application is designed to be easy-to-download and easy-to-navigate for the end user, which is imperative for the eventual democratization of such medical diagnostic systems.

* Symmetry 2019 
  

Abnormality Detection in Mammography using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks

Mar 05, 2018
Pengcheng Xi, Chang Shu, Rafik Goubran

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. The most common screening technology is mammography. To reduce the cost and workload of radiologists, we propose a computer aided detection approach for classifying and localizing calcifications and masses in mammogram images. To improve on conventional approaches, we apply deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) for automatic feature learning and classifier building. In computer-aided mammography, deep CNN classifiers cannot be trained directly on full mammogram images because of the loss of image details from resizing at input layers. Instead, our classifiers are trained on labelled image patches and then adapted to work on full mammogram images for localizing the abnormalities. State-of-the-art deep convolutional neural networks are compared on their performance of classifying the abnormalities. Experimental results indicate that VGGNet receives the best overall accuracy at 92.53\% in classifications. For localizing abnormalities, ResNet is selected for computing class activation maps because it is ready to be deployed without structural change or further training. Our approach demonstrates that deep convolutional neural network classifiers have remarkable localization capabilities despite no supervision on the location of abnormalities is provided.

* 6 pages 
  

Detecting Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma in Multi-phase CT Scans via Alignment Ensemble

Apr 03, 2020
Yingda Xia, Qihang Yu, Wei Shen, Yuyin Zhou, Elliot K. Fishman, Alan L. Yuille

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers among population. Screening for PDACs in dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is beneficial for early diagnose. In this paper, we investigate the problem of automated detecting PDACs in multi-phase (arterial and venous) CT scans. Multiple phases provide more information than single phase, but they are unaligned and inhomogeneous in texture, making it difficult to combine cross-phase information seamlessly. We study multiple phase alignment strategies, i.e., early alignment (image registration), late alignment (high-level feature registration) and slow alignment (multi-level feature registration), and suggest an ensemble of all these alignments as a promising way to boost the performance of PDAC detection. We provide an extensive empirical evaluation on two PDAC datasets and show that the proposed alignment ensemble significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art approaches, illustrating strong potential for clinical use.

* The first two authors contributed equally to this work 
  

Classification of breast cancer histology images using transfer learning

Feb 26, 2018
Sulaiman Vesal, Nishant Ravikumar, AmirAbbas Davari, Stephan Ellmann, Andreas Maier

Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in women. Early detection and treatment are imperative for improving survival rates, which have steadily increased in recent years as a result of more sophisticated computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) systems. A critical component of breast cancer diagnosis relies on histopathology, a laborious and highly subjective process. Consequently, CAD systems are essential to reduce inter-rater variability and supplement the analyses conducted by specialists. In this paper, a transfer-learning based approach is proposed, for the task of breast histology image classification into four tissue sub-types, namely, normal, benign, \textit{in situ} carcinoma and invasive carcinoma. The histology images, provided as part of the BACH 2018 grand challenge, were first normalized to correct for color variations resulting from inconsistencies during slide preparation. Subsequently, image patches were extracted and used to fine-tune Google`s Inception-V3 and ResNet50 convolutional neural networks (CNNs), both pre-trained on the ImageNet database, enabling them to learn domain-specific features, necessary to classify the histology images. The ResNet50 network (based on residual learning) achieved a test classification accuracy of 97.50% for four classes, outperforming the Inception-V3 network which achieved an accuracy of 91.25%.

* 8 pages, Submitted to 15th International Conference on Image Analysis and Recognition (ICAIR 2018) 
  
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