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"cancer detection": models, code, and papers

Model Selection for Anomaly Detection

Jul 12, 2017
Evgeny Burnaev, Pavel Erofeev, Dmitry Smolyakov

Anomaly detection based on one-class classification algorithms is broadly used in many applied domains like image processing (e.g. detection of whether a patient is "cancerous" or "healthy" from mammography image), network intrusion detection, etc. Performance of an anomaly detection algorithm crucially depends on a kernel, used to measure similarity in a feature space. The standard approaches (e.g. cross-validation) for kernel selection, used in two-class classification problems, can not be used directly due to the specific nature of a data (absence of a second, abnormal, class data). In this paper we generalize several kernel selection methods from binary-class case to the case of one-class classification and perform extensive comparison of these approaches using both synthetic and real-world data.

* Proc. SPIE 9875, 2015 
* 6 pages, 3 figures, Eighth International Conference on Machine Vision (December 8, 2015) 
  

Lymph Node Gross Tumor Volume Detection in Oncology Imaging via Relationship Learning Using Graph Neural Network

Aug 29, 2020
Chun-Hung Chao, Zhuotun Zhu, Dazhou Guo, Ke Yan, Tsung-Ying Ho, Jinzheng Cai, Adam P. Harrison, Xianghua Ye, Jing Xiao, Alan Yuille, Min Sun, Le Lu, Dakai Jin

Determining the spread of GTV$_{LN}$ is essential in defining the respective resection or irradiating regions for the downstream workflows of surgical resection and radiotherapy for many cancers. Different from the more common enlarged lymph node (LN), GTV$_{LN}$ also includes smaller ones if associated with high positron emission tomography signals and/or any metastasis signs in CT. This is a daunting task. In this work, we propose a unified LN appearance and inter-LN relationship learning framework to detect the true GTV$_{LN}$. This is motivated by the prior clinical knowledge that LNs form a connected lymphatic system, and the spread of cancer cells among LNs often follows certain pathways. Specifically, we first utilize a 3D convolutional neural network with ROI-pooling to extract the GTV$_{LN}$'s instance-wise appearance features. Next, we introduce a graph neural network to further model the inter-LN relationships where the global LN-tumor spatial priors are included in the learning process. This leads to an end-to-end trainable network to detect by classifying GTV$_{LN}$. We operate our model on a set of GTV$_{LN}$ candidates generated by a preliminary 1st-stage method, which has a sensitivity of $>85\%$ at the cost of high false positive (FP) ($>15$ FPs per patient). We validate our approach on a radiotherapy dataset with 142 paired PET/RTCT scans containing the chest and upper abdominal body parts. The proposed method significantly improves over the state-of-the-art (SOTA) LN classification method by $5.5\%$ and $13.1\%$ in F1 score and the averaged sensitivity value at $2, 3, 4, 6$ FPs per patient, respectively.

* Accepted to MICCAI 2020 
  

Machine learning methods for prediction of cancer driver genes: a survey paper

Sep 28, 2021
Renan Andrades, Mariana Recamonde-Mendoza

Identifying the genes and mutations that drive the emergence of tumors is a major step to improve understanding of cancer and identify new directions for disease diagnosis and treatment. Despite the large volume of genomics data, the precise detection of driver mutations and their carrying genes, known as cancer driver genes, from the millions of possible somatic mutations remains a challenge. Computational methods play an increasingly important role in identifying genomic patterns associated with cancer drivers and developing models to predict driver events. Machine learning (ML) has been the engine behind many of these efforts and provides excellent opportunities for tackling remaining gaps in the field. Thus, this survey aims to perform a comprehensive analysis of ML-based computational approaches to identify cancer driver mutations and genes, providing an integrated, panoramic view of the broad data and algorithmic landscape within this scientific problem. We discuss how the interactions among data types and ML algorithms have been explored in previous solutions and outline current analytical limitations that deserve further attention from the scientific community. We hope that by helping readers become more familiar with significant developments in the field brought by ML, we may inspire new researchers to address open problems and advance our knowledge towards cancer driver discovery.

  

An Analysis of the Methods Employed for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

Jun 17, 2012
Mahjabeen Mirza Beg, Monika Jain

Breast cancer research over the last decade has been tremendous. The ground breaking innovations and novel methods help in the early detection, in setting the stages of the therapy and in assessing the response of the patient to the treatment. The prediction of the recurrent cancer is also crucial for the survival of the patient. This paper studies various techniques used for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Different methods are explored for their merits and de-merits for the diagnosis of breast lesion. Some of the methods are yet unproven but the studies look very encouraging. It was found that the recent use of the combination of Artificial Neural Networks in most of the instances gives accurate results for the diagnosis of breast cancer and their use can also be extended to other diseases.

* International Journal of Research in Computer Science 2 (2012) 25-29 
* 5 pages, 6 figures 
  

DeepSEED: 3D Squeeze-and-Excitation Encoder-Decoder ConvNets for Pulmonary Nodule Detection

Apr 06, 2019
Yuemeng Li, Hangfan Liu, Yong Fan

Pulmonary nodule detection plays an important role in lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans. Although promising performance has been achieved by deep learning based nodule detection methods, it remains challenging to build nodule detection networks with good generalization performance due to unbalanced positive and negative samples. In order to overcome this problem and further improve state-of-the-art region proposal network methods, we develop a novel deep 3D convolutional neural network with an Encoder-Decoder structure for pulmonary nodule detection. Particularly, we utilize a dynamically scaled cross entropy loss to reduce the false positive rate and compensate the significant data imbalance problem. We adopt the squeeze-and-excitation structure to learn effective image features and fully utilize channel inter-dependency. We have validated our method based on publicly available CT scans from LIDC/IDRI dataset and its subset LUNA16 with thinner slices. Ablation studies and experimental results have demonstrated that our method could outperform state-of-the-art nodule detection methods by a large margin, with an average FROC score of 86.2% on LUNA16, and an average FROC score of 77.3% on LIDC/IDRI dataset when trained on LUNA16 only.

* 9 pages, 3 figures 
  

Breast mass detection in digital mammography based on anchor-free architecture

Sep 02, 2020
Haichao Cao

Background and Objective: Accurate detection of breast masses in mammography images is critical to diagnose early breast cancer, which can greatly improve the patients survival rate. However, it is still a big challenge due to the heterogeneity of breast masses and the complexity of their surrounding environment.Methods: To address these problems, we propose a one-stage object detection architecture, called Breast Mass Detection Network (BMassDNet), based on anchor-free and feature pyramid which makes the detection of breast masses of different sizes well adapted. We introduce a truncation normalization method and combine it with adaptive histogram equalization to enhance the contrast between the breast mass and the surrounding environment. Meanwhile, to solve the overfitting problem caused by small data size, we propose a natural deformation data augmentation method and mend the train data dynamic updating method based on the data complexity to effectively utilize the limited data. Finally, we use transfer learning to assist the training process and to improve the robustness of the model ulteriorly.Results: On the INbreast dataset, each image has an average of 0.495 false positives whilst the recall rate is 0.930; On the DDSM dataset, when each image has 0.599 false positives, the recall rate reaches 0.943.Conclusions: The experimental results on datasets INbreast and DDSM show that the proposed BMassDNet can obtain competitive detection performance over the current top ranked methods.

* 26 pages, 12 figures 
  

A New Dataset and A Baseline Model for Breast Lesion Detection in Ultrasound Videos

Jul 01, 2022
Zhi Lin, Junhao Lin, Lei Zhu, Huazhu Fu, Jing Qin, Liansheng Wang

Breast lesion detection in ultrasound is critical for breast cancer diagnosis. Existing methods mainly rely on individual 2D ultrasound images or combine unlabeled video and labeled 2D images to train models for breast lesion detection. In this paper, we first collect and annotate an ultrasound video dataset (188 videos) for breast lesion detection. Moreover, we propose a clip-level and video-level feature aggregated network (CVA-Net) for addressing breast lesion detection in ultrasound videos by aggregating video-level lesion classification features and clip-level temporal features. The clip-level temporal features encode local temporal information of ordered video frames and global temporal information of shuffled video frames. In our CVA-Net, an inter-video fusion module is devised to fuse local features from original video frames and global features from shuffled video frames, and an intra-video fusion module is devised to learn the temporal information among adjacent video frames. Moreover, we learn video-level features to classify the breast lesions of the original video as benign or malignant lesions to further enhance the final breast lesion detection performance in ultrasound videos. Experimental results on our annotated dataset demonstrate that our CVA-Net clearly outperforms state-of-the-art methods. The corresponding code and dataset are publicly available at \url{https://github.com/jhl-Det/CVA-Net}.

* Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Interventions 2022 
* 11 pages, 4 figures 
  

DeepLung: Deep 3D Dual Path Nets for Automated Pulmonary Nodule Detection and Classification

Jan 25, 2018
Wentao Zhu, Chaochun Liu, Wei Fan, Xiaohui Xie

In this work, we present a fully automated lung computed tomography (CT) cancer diagnosis system, DeepLung. DeepLung consists of two components, nodule detection (identifying the locations of candidate nodules) and classification (classifying candidate nodules into benign or malignant). Considering the 3D nature of lung CT data and the compactness of dual path networks (DPN), two deep 3D DPN are designed for nodule detection and classification respectively. Specifically, a 3D Faster Regions with Convolutional Neural Net (R-CNN) is designed for nodule detection with 3D dual path blocks and a U-net-like encoder-decoder structure to effectively learn nodule features. For nodule classification, gradient boosting machine (GBM) with 3D dual path network features is proposed. The nodule classification subnetwork was validated on a public dataset from LIDC-IDRI, on which it achieved better performance than state-of-the-art approaches and surpassed the performance of experienced doctors based on image modality. Within the DeepLung system, candidate nodules are detected first by the nodule detection subnetwork, and nodule diagnosis is conducted by the classification subnetwork. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that DeepLung has performance comparable to experienced doctors both for the nodule-level and patient-level diagnosis on the LIDC-IDRI dataset.\footnote{https://github.com/uci-cbcl/DeepLung.git}

* 9 pages, 8 figures, IEEE WACV conference. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1709.05538 
  

Application of Gist SVM in Cancer Detection

Mar 06, 2012
S. Aruna, S. P. Rajagopalan, L. V. Nandakishore

In this paper, we study the application of GIST SVM in disease prediction (detection of cancer). Pattern classification problems can be effectively solved by Support vector machines. Here we propose a classifier which can differentiate patients having benign and malignant cancer cells. To improve the accuracy of classification, we propose to determine the optimal size of the training set and perform feature selection. To find the optimal size of the training set, different sizes of training sets are experimented and the one with highest classification rate is selected. The optimal features are selected through their F-Scores.

* Ann. Univ. Tibiscus Comp. Sci. Series IX/2 (2011), 39-48 
* 10 pages 
  

Interpretability methods of machine learning algorithms with applications in breast cancer diagnosis

Feb 04, 2022
Panagiota Karatza, Kalliopi V. Dalakleidi, Maria Athanasiou, Konstantina S. Nikita

Early detection of breast cancer is a powerful tool towards decreasing its socioeconomic burden. Although, artificial intelligence (AI) methods have shown remarkable results towards this goal, their "black box" nature hinders their wide adoption in clinical practice. To address the need for AI guided breast cancer diagnosis, interpretability methods can be utilized. In this study, we used AI methods, i.e., Random Forests (RF), Neural Networks (NN) and Ensembles of Neural Networks (ENN), towards this goal and explained and optimized their performance through interpretability techniques, such as the Global Surrogate (GS) method, the Individual Conditional Expectation (ICE) plots and the Shapley values (SV). The Wisconsin Diagnostic Breast Cancer (WDBC) dataset of the open UCI repository was used for the training and evaluation of the AI algorithms. The best performance for breast cancer diagnosis was achieved by the proposed ENN (96.6% accuracy and 0.96 area under the ROC curve), and its predictions were explained by ICE plots, proving that its decisions were compliant with current medical knowledge and can be further utilized to gain new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of breast cancer. Feature selection based on features' importance according to the GS model improved the performance of the RF (leading the accuracy from 96.49% to 97.18% and the area under the ROC curve from 0.96 to 0.97) and feature selection based on features' importance according to SV improved the performance of the NN (leading the accuracy from 94.6% to 95.53% and the area under the ROC curve from 0.94 to 0.95). Compared to other approaches on the same dataset, our proposed models demonstrated state of the art performance while being interpretable.

* 2021 43rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC) 
  
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