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"cancer detection": models, code, and papers

Machine learning approach for segmenting glands in colon histology images using local intensity and texture features

May 15, 2019
Rupali Khatun, Soumick Chatterjee

Colon Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. The treatment is planned to depend on the grade or stage of cancer. One of the preconditions for grading of colon cancer is to segment the glandular structures of tissues. Manual segmentation method is very time-consuming, and it leads to life risk for the patients. The principal objective of this project is to assist the pathologist to accurate detection of colon cancer. In this paper, the authors have proposed an algorithm for an automatic segmentation of glands in colon histology using local intensity and texture features. Here the dataset images are cropped into patches with different window sizes and taken the intensity of those patches, and also calculated texture-based features. Random forest classifier has been used to classify this patch into different labels. A multilevel random forest technique in a hierarchical way is proposed. This solution is fast, accurate and it is very much applicable in a clinical setup.

* 8th International Advance Computing Conference (IACC), 2018 
  
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Towards a Complete Pipeline for Segmenting Nuclei in Feulgen-Stained Images

Feb 19, 2020
Luiz Antonio Buschetto Macarini, Aldo von Wangenheim, Felipe Perozzo Daltoé, Alexandre Sherlley Casimiro Onofre, Fabiana Botelho de Miranda Onofre, Marcelo Ricardo Stemmer

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer type in women around the world. In some countries, due to non-existent or inadequate screening, it is often detected at late stages, making standard treatment options often absent or unaffordable. It is a deadly disease that could benefit from early detection approaches. It is usually done by cytological exams which consist of visually inspecting the nuclei searching for morphological alteration. Since it is done by humans, naturally, some subjectivity is introduced. Computational methods could be used to reduce this, where the first stage of the process would be the nuclei segmentation. In this context, we present a complete pipeline for the segmentation of nuclei in Feulgen-stained images using Convolutional Neural Networks. Here we show the entire process of segmentation, since the collection of the samples, passing through pre-processing, training the network, post-processing and results evaluation. We achieved an overall IoU of 0.78, showing the affordability of the approach of nuclei segmentation on Feulgen-stained images. The code is available in: https://github.com/luizbuschetto/feulgen_nuclei_segmentation.

* 7 pages, 8 figures (Figure 2 with "a" and "b"), conference paper accepted for presentation in XI Computer on the Beach (https://www.computeronthebeach.com.br/
  
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Computed Tomography Image Enhancement using 3D Convolutional Neural Network

Jul 18, 2018
Meng Li, Shiwen Shen, Wen Gao, William Hsu, Jason Cong

Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly being used for cancer screening, such as early detection of lung cancer. However, CT studies have varying pixel spacing due to differences in acquisition parameters. Thick slice CTs have lower resolution, hindering tasks such as nodule characterization during computer-aided detection due to partial volume effect. In this study, we propose a novel 3D enhancement convolutional neural network (3DECNN) to improve the spatial resolution of CT studies that were acquired using lower resolution/slice thicknesses to higher resolutions. Using a subset of the LIDC dataset consisting of 20,672 CT slices from 100 scans, we simulated lower resolution/thick section scans then attempted to reconstruct the original images using our 3DECNN network. A significant improvement in PSNR (29.3087dB vs. 28.8769dB, p-value < 2.2e-16) and SSIM (0.8529dB vs. 0.8449dB, p-value < 2.2e-16) compared to other state-of-art deep learning methods is observed.

  
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Microscope 2.0: An Augmented Reality Microscope with Real-time Artificial Intelligence Integration

Dec 04, 2018
Po-Hsuan Cameron Chen, Krishna Gadepalli, Robert MacDonald, Yun Liu, Kunal Nagpal, Timo Kohlberger, Jeffrey Dean, Greg S. Corrado, Jason D. Hipp, Martin C. Stumpe

The brightfield microscope is instrumental in the visual examination of both biological and physical samples at sub-millimeter scales. One key clinical application has been in cancer histopathology, where the microscopic assessment of the tissue samples is used for the diagnosis and staging of cancer and thus guides clinical therapy. However, the interpretation of these samples is inherently subjective, resulting in significant diagnostic variability. Moreover, in many regions of the world, access to pathologists is severely limited due to lack of trained personnel. In this regard, Artificial Intelligence (AI) based tools promise to improve the access and quality of healthcare. However, despite significant advances in AI research, integration of these tools into real-world cancer diagnosis workflows remains challenging because of the costs of image digitization and difficulties in deploying AI solutions. Here we propose a cost-effective solution to the integration of AI: the Augmented Reality Microscope (ARM). The ARM overlays AI-based information onto the current view of the sample through the optical pathway in real-time, enabling seamless integration of AI into the regular microscopy workflow. We demonstrate the utility of ARM in the detection of lymph node metastases in breast cancer and the identification of prostate cancer with a latency that supports real-time workflows. We anticipate that ARM will remove barriers towards the use of AI in microscopic analysis and thus improve the accuracy and efficiency of cancer diagnosis. This approach is applicable to other microscopy tasks and AI algorithms in the life sciences and beyond.

  
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Neural Transformers for Intraductal Papillary Mucosal Neoplasms (IPMN) Classification in MRI images

Jun 21, 2022
Federica Proietto Salanitri, Giovanni Bellitto, Simone Palazzo, Ismail Irmakci, Michael B. Wallace, Candice W. Bolan, Megan Engels, Sanne Hoogenboom, Marco Aldinucci, Ulas Bagci, Daniela Giordano, Concetto Spampinato

Early detection of precancerous cysts or neoplasms, i.e., Intraductal Papillary Mucosal Neoplasms (IPMN), in pancreas is a challenging and complex task, and it may lead to a more favourable outcome. Once detected, grading IPMNs accurately is also necessary, since low-risk IPMNs can be under surveillance program, while high-risk IPMNs have to be surgically resected before they turn into cancer. Current standards (Fukuoka and others) for IPMN classification show significant intra- and inter-operator variability, beside being error-prone, making a proper diagnosis unreliable. The established progress in artificial intelligence, through the deep learning paradigm, may provide a key tool for an effective support to medical decision for pancreatic cancer. In this work, we follow this trend, by proposing a novel AI-based IPMN classifier that leverages the recent success of transformer networks in generalizing across a wide variety of tasks, including vision ones. We specifically show that our transformer-based model exploits pre-training better than standard convolutional neural networks, thus supporting the sought architectural universalism of transformers in vision, including the medical image domain and it allows for a better interpretation of the obtained results.

  
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Multi-scale Regional Attention Deeplab3+: Multiple Myeloma Plasma Cells Segmentation in Microscopic Images

May 13, 2021
Afshin Bozorgpour, Reza Azad, Eman Showkatian, Alaa Sulaiman

Multiple myeloma cancer is a type of blood cancer that happens when the growth of abnormal plasma cells becomes out of control in the bone marrow. There are various ways to diagnose multiple myeloma in bone marrow such as complete blood count test (CBC) or counting myeloma plasma cell in aspirate slide images using manual visualization or through image processing technique. In this work, an automatic deep learning method for the detection and segmentation of multiple myeloma plasma cell have been explored. To this end, a two-stage deep learning method is designed. In the first stage, the nucleus detection network is utilized to extract each instance of a cell of interest. The extracted instance is then fed to the multi-scale function to generate a multi-scale representation. The objective of the multi-scale function is to capture the shape variation and reduce the effect of object scale on the cytoplasm segmentation network. The generated scales are then fed into a pyramid of cytoplasm networks to learn the segmentation map in various scales. On top of the cytoplasm segmentation network, we included a scale aggregation function to refine and generate a final prediction. The proposed approach has been evaluated on the SegPC2021 grand-challenge and ranked second on the final test phase among all teams.

* 10 pages, 5 figures, presented at ISBI2021 
  
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Semi-Supervised Cervical Dysplasia Classification With Learnable Graph Convolutional Network

Apr 01, 2020
Yanglan Ou, Yuan Xue, Ye Yuan, Tao Xu, Vincent Pisztora, Jia Li, Xiaolei Huang

Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer affecting women today. As the early detection of cervical carcinoma relies heavily upon screening and pre-clinical testing, digital cervicography has great potential as a primary or auxiliary screening tool, especially in low-resource regions due to its low cost and easy access. Although an automated cervical dysplasia detection system has been desirable, traditional fully-supervised training of such systems requires large amounts of annotated data which are often labor-intensive to collect. To alleviate the need for much manual annotation, we propose a novel graph convolutional network (GCN) based semi-supervised classification model that can be trained with fewer annotations. In existing GCNs, graphs are constructed with fixed features and can not be updated during the learning process. This limits their ability to exploit new features learned during graph convolution. In this paper, we propose a novel and more flexible GCN model with a feature encoder that adaptively updates the adjacency matrix during learning and demonstrate that this model design leads to improved performance. Our experimental results on a cervical dysplasia classification dataset show that the proposed framework outperforms previous methods under a semi-supervised setting, especially when the labeled samples are scarce.

* ISBI 2020 
  
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Sharing Generative Models Instead of Private Data: A Simulation Study on Mammography Patch Classification

Mar 08, 2022
Zuzanna Szafranowska, Richard Osuala, Bennet Breier, Kaisar Kushibar, Karim Lekadir, Oliver Diaz

Early detection of breast cancer in mammography screening via deep-learning based computer-aided detection systems shows promising potential in improving the curability and mortality rates of breast cancer. However, many clinical centres are restricted in the amount and heterogeneity of available data to train such models to (i) achieve promising performance and to (ii) generalise well across acquisition protocols and domains. As sharing data between centres is restricted due to patient privacy concerns, we propose a potential solution: sharing trained generative models between centres as substitute for real patient data. In this work, we use three well known mammography datasets to simulate three different centres, where one centre receives the trained generator of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) from the two remaining centres in order to augment the size and heterogeneity of its training dataset. We evaluate the utility of this approach on mammography patch classification on the test set of the GAN-receiving centre using two different classification models, (a) a convolutional neural network and (b) a transformer neural network. Our experiments demonstrate that shared GANs notably increase the performance of both transformer and convolutional classification models and highlight this approach as a viable alternative to inter-centre data sharing.

* Draft accepted as oral presentation at International Workshop on Breast Imaging (IWBI) 2022. 9 pages, 3 figures 
  
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Cell nuclei classification in histopathological images using hybrid OLConvNet

Feb 21, 2022
Suvidha Tripathi, Satish Kumar Singh

Computer-aided histopathological image analysis for cancer detection is a major research challenge in the medical domain. Automatic detection and classification of nuclei for cancer diagnosis impose a lot of challenges in developing state of the art algorithms due to the heterogeneity of cell nuclei and data set variability. Recently, a multitude of classification algorithms has used complex deep learning models for their dataset. However, most of these methods are rigid and their architectural arrangement suffers from inflexibility and non-interpretability. In this research article, we have proposed a hybrid and flexible deep learning architecture OLConvNet that integrates the interpretability of traditional object-level features and generalization of deep learning features by using a shallower Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) named as $CNN_{3L}$. $CNN_{3L}$ reduces the training time by training fewer parameters and hence eliminating space constraints imposed by deeper algorithms. We used F1-score and multiclass Area Under the Curve (AUC) performance parameters to compare the results. To further strengthen the viability of our architectural approach, we tested our proposed methodology with state of the art deep learning architectures AlexNet, VGG16, VGG19, ResNet50, InceptionV3, and DenseNet121 as backbone networks. After a comprehensive analysis of classification results from all four architectures, we observed that our proposed model works well and perform better than contemporary complex algorithms.

* @article{10.1145/3345318, year = {2020},journal = {ACM Trans. Multimedia Comput. Commun. Appl.}, volume = {16}, number = {1s}, issn = {1551-6857}, articleno = {32}, numpages = {22}} 
  
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Reduction of Surgical Risk Through the Evaluation of Medical Imaging Diagnostics

Mar 08, 2020
Marco A. V. M. Grinet, Nuno M. Garcia, Ana I. R. Gouveia, Jose A. F. Moutinho, Abel J. P. Gomes

Computer aided diagnosis (CAD) of Breast Cancer (BRCA) images has been an active area of research in recent years. The main goals of this research is to develop reliable automatic methods for detecting and diagnosing different types of BRCA from diagnostic images. In this paper, we present a review of the state of the art CAD methods applied to magnetic resonance (MRI) and mammography images of BRCA patients. The review aims to provide an extensive introduction to different features extracted from BRCA images through texture and statistical analysis and to categorize deep learning frameworks and data structures capable of using metadata to aggregate relevant information to assist oncologists and radiologists. We divide the existing literature according to the imaging modality and into radiomics, machine learning, or combination of both. We also emphasize the difference between each modality and methods strengths and weaknesses and analyze their performance in detecting BRCA through a quantitative comparison. We compare the results of various approaches for implementing CAD systems for the detection of BRCA. Each approachs standard workflow components are reviewed and summary tables provided. We present an extensive literature review of radiomics feature extraction techniques and machine learning methods applied in BRCA diagnosis and detection, focusing on data preparation, data structures, pre processing and post processing strategies available in the literature. There is a growing interest on radiomic feature extraction and machine learning methods for BRCA detection through histopathological images, MRI and mammography images. However, there isnt a CAD method able to combine distinct data types to provide the best diagnostic results. Employing data fusion techniques to medical images and patient data could lead to improved detection and classification results.

* 25 pages, 7 figures, Scientific grant report 
  
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