Breast cancer is a health problem that affects mainly the female population. An early detection increases the chances of effective treatment, improving the prognosis of the disease. In this regard, computational tools have been proposed to assist the specialist in interpreting the breast digital image exam, providing features for detecting and diagnosing tumors and cancerous cells. Nonetheless, detecting tumors with a high sensitivity rate and reducing the false positives rate is still challenging. Texture descriptors have been quite popular in medical image analysis, particularly in histopathologic images (HI), due to the variability of both the texture found in such images and the tissue appearance due to irregularity in the staining process. Such variability may exist depending on differences in staining protocol such as fixation, inconsistency in the staining condition, and reagents, either between laboratories or in the same laboratory. Textural feature extraction for quantifying HI information in a discriminant way is challenging given the distribution of intrinsic properties of such images forms a non-deterministic complex system. This paper proposes a method for characterizing texture across HIs with a considerable success rate. By employing ecological diversity measures and discrete wavelet transform, it is possible to quantify the intrinsic properties of such images with promising accuracy on two HI datasets compared with state-of-the-art methods.
We present an extension of sparse Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) designed for finding multiple-to-multiple linear correlations within a single set of variables. Unlike CCA, which finds correlations between two sets of data where the rows are matched exactly but the columns represent separate sets of variables, the method proposed here, Canonical Autocorrelation Analysis (CAA), finds multivariate correlations within just one set of variables. This can be useful when we look for hidden parsimonious structures in data, each involving only a small subset of all features. In addition, the discovered correlations are highly interpretable as they are formed by pairs of sparse linear combinations of the original features. We show how CAA can be of use as a tool for anomaly detection when the expected structure of correlations is not followed by anomalous data. We illustrate the utility of CAA in two application domains where single-class and unsupervised learning of correlation structures are particularly relevant: breast cancer diagnosis and radiation threat detection. When applied to the Wisconsin Breast Cancer data, single-class CAA is competitive with supervised methods used in literature. On the radiation threat detection task, unsupervised CAA performs significantly better than an unsupervised alternative prevalent in the domain, while providing valuable additional insights for threat analysis.
Microwave imaging for breast cancer detection is based on the contrast in the electrical properties of healthy fatty breast tissues. This paper presents an industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) bands comparative study of five microstrip patch antennas for microwave imaging at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The choice of one antenna is made for an antenna array composed of 8 antennas for a microwave breast imaging system. Each antenna element is arranged in a circular configuration so that it can be directly faced to the breast phantom for better tumor detection. This choice is made by putting each antenna alone on the Breast skin to study the electric field, magnetic fields and current density in the healthy tissue of the breast phantom designed and simulated in Ansoft High Frequency Simulation Software (HFSS).
Semantic segmentation constitutes an integral part of medical image analyses for which breakthroughs in the field of deep learning were of high relevance. The large number of trainable parameters of deep neural networks however renders them inherently data hungry, a characteristic that heavily challenges the medical imaging community. Though interestingly, with the de facto standard training of fully convolutional networks (FCNs) for semantic segmentation being agnostic towards the `structure' of the predicted label maps, valuable complementary information about the global quality of the segmentation lies idle. In order to tap into this potential, we propose utilizing an adversarial network which discriminates between expert and generated annotations in order to train FCNs for semantic segmentation. Because the adversary constitutes a learned parametrization of what makes a good segmentation at a global level, we hypothesize that the method holds particular advantages for segmentation tasks on complex structured, small datasets. This holds true in our experiments: We learn to segment aggressive prostate cancer utilizing MRI images of 152 patients and show that the proposed scheme is superior over the de facto standard in terms of the detection sensitivity and the dice-score for aggressive prostate cancer. The achieved relative gains are shown to be particularly pronounced in the small dataset limit.
Cervical cancer is a malignant tumor that seriously threatens women's health, and is one of the most common that affects women worldwide. For its early detection, colposcopic images of the cervix are used for searching for possible injuries or abnormalities. An inherent characteristic of these images is the presence of specular reflections (brightness) that make it difficult to observe some regions, which might imply a misdiagnosis. In this paper, a new strategy based on neural networks is introduced for eliminating specular reflections and estimating the unobserved anatomical cervix portion under the bright zones. We present a supervised learning method, despite not knowing the ground truth from the beginning, based on training a neural network to learn how to restore any hidden region of colposcopic images. Once the specular reflections are identified, they are removed from the image and the previously trained network is used to fulfill these deleted areas. The quality of the processed images was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. In 21 of the 22 evaluated images, the detected specular reflections were totally eliminated, whereas, in the remaining one, these reflections were almost completely eliminated. The distribution of the colors and the content of the restored images are similar to those of the originals. The evaluation carried out by a specialist in Cervix Pathology concluded that, after eliminating the specular reflections, the anatomical and physiological elements of the cervix are observable in the restored images, which facilitates the medical diagnosis of cervical pathologies. Our method has the potential to improve the early detection of cervical cancer.
Breast cancer is a disease that threatens many women's life, thus, early and accurate detection plays a key role in reducing the mortality rate. Mammography stands as the reference technique for breast cancer screening; nevertheless, many countries still lack access to mammograms due to economic, social, and cultural issues. Last advances in computational tools, infrared cameras, and devices for bio-impedance quantification allowed the development of parallel techniques like thermography, infrared imaging, and electrical impedance tomography, these being faster, reliable and cheaper. In the last decades, these have been considered as complement procedures for breast cancer diagnosis, where many studies concluded that false positive and false negative rates are greatly reduced. This work aims to review the last breakthroughs about the three above-mentioned techniques describing the benefits of mixing several computational skills to obtain a better global performance. In addition, we provide a comparison between several machine learning techniques applied to breast cancer diagnosis going from logistic regression, decision trees, and random forest to artificial, deep, and convolutional neural networks. Finally, it is mentioned several recommendations for 3D breast simulations, pre-processing techniques, biomedical devices in the research field, prediction of tumor location and size.
Deep neural networks have introduced significant advancements in the field of machine learning-based analysis of digital pathology images including prostate tissue images. With the help of transfer learning, classification and segmentation performance of neural network models have been further increased. However, due to the absence of large, extensively annotated, publicly available prostate histopathology datasets, several previous studies employ datasets from well-studied computer vision tasks such as ImageNet dataset. In this work, we propose a transfer learning scheme from breast histopathology images to improve prostate cancer detection performance. We validate our approach on annotated prostate whole slide images by using a publicly available breast histopathology dataset as pre-training. We show that the proposed cross-cancer approach outperforms transfer learning from ImageNet dataset.
One of the most challenges in medical imaging is the lack of data and annotated data. It is proven that classical segmentation methods such as U-NET are useful but still limited due to the lack of annotated data. Using a weakly supervised learning is a promising way to address this problem, however, it is challenging to train one model to detect and locate efficiently different type of lesions due to the huge variation in images. In this paper, we present a novel approach to locate different type of lesions in positron emission tomography (PET) images using only a class label at the image-level. First, a simple convolutional neural network classifier is trained to predict the type of cancer on two 2D MIP images. Then, a pseudo-localization of the tumor is generated using class activation maps, back-propagated and corrected in a multitask learning approach with prior knowledge, resulting in a tumor detection mask. Finally, we use the mask generated from the two 2D images to detect the tumor in the 3D image. The advantage of our proposed method consists of detecting the whole tumor volume in 3D images, using only two 2D images of PET image, and showing a very promising results. It can be used as a tool to locate very efficiently tumors in a PET scan, which is a time-consuming task for physicians. In addition, we show that our proposed method can be used to conduct a radiomics study with state of the art results.
Currently Mammography is a most effective imaging modality used by radiologists for the screening of breast cancer. Finding an accurate, robust and efficient breast region segmentation technique still remains a challenging problem in digital mammography. Extraction of the breast profile region and the removal of pectoral muscle are essential pre-processing steps in Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Primarily it allows the search for abnormalities to be limited to the region of the breast tissue without undue influence from the background of the mammogram. The presence of pectoral muscle in mammograms biases detection procedures, which recommends removing the pectoral muscle during mammogram image pre-processing. The presence of pectoral muscle in mammograms may disturb or influence the detection of breast cancer as the pectoral muscle and mammographic parenchymas appear similar. The goal of breast region extraction is reducing the image size without losing anatomic information, it improve the accuracy of the overall CAD system. The main objective of this study is to propose an automated method to identify the pectoral muscle in Medio-Lateral Oblique (MLO) view mammograms. In this paper, we proposed histogram based 8-neighborhood connected component labelling method for breast region extraction and removal of pectoral muscle. The proposed method is evaluated by using the mean values of accuracy and error. The comparative analysis shows that the proposed method identifies the breast region more accurately.