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"autonomous cars": models, code, and papers

Don't Forget The Past: Recurrent Depth Estimation from Monocular Video

Jan 08, 2020
Vaishakh Patil, Wouter Van Gansbeke, Dengxin Dai, Luc Van Gool

Autonomous cars need continuously updated depth information. Thus far, the depth is mostly estimated independently for a single frame at a time, even if the method starts from video input. Our method produces a time series of depth maps, which makes it an ideal candidate for online learning approaches. In particular, we put three different types of depth estimation (supervised depth prediction, self-supervised depth prediction, and self-supervised depth completion) into a common framework. We integrate the corresponding networks with a convolutional LSTM such that the spatiotemporal structures of depth across frames can be exploited to yield a more accurate depth estimation. Our method is flexible. It can be applied to monocular videos only or be combined with different types of sparse depth patterns. We carefully study the architecture of the recurrent network and its training strategy. We are first to successfully exploit recurrent networks for real-time self-supervised monocular depth estimation and completion. Extensive experiments show that our recurrent method outperforms its image-based counterpart consistently and significantly in both self-supervised scenarios. It also outperforms previous depth estimation methods of the three popular groups.

  

Detecting Adversarial Samples for Deep Neural Networks through Mutation Testing

May 17, 2018
Jingyi Wang, Jun Sun, Peixin Zhang, Xinyu Wang

Recently, it has been shown that deep neural networks (DNN) are subject to attacks through adversarial samples. Adversarial samples are often crafted through adversarial perturbation, i.e., manipulating the original sample with minor modifications so that the DNN model labels the sample incorrectly. Given that it is almost impossible to train perfect DNN, adversarial samples are shown to be easy to generate. As DNN are increasingly used in safety-critical systems like autonomous cars, it is crucial to develop techniques for defending such attacks. Existing defense mechanisms which aim to make adversarial perturbation challenging have been shown to be ineffective. In this work, we propose an alternative approach. We first observe that adversarial samples are much more sensitive to perturbations than normal samples. That is, if we impose random perturbations on a normal and an adversarial sample respectively, there is a significant difference between the ratio of label change due to the perturbations. Observing this, we design a statistical adversary detection algorithm called nMutant (inspired by mutation testing from software engineering community). Our experiments show that nMutant effectively detects most of the adversarial samples generated by recently proposed attacking methods. Furthermore, we provide an error bound with certain statistical significance along with the detection.

* Sumitted to NIPS 2018 
  

JointDNN: An Efficient Training and Inference Engine for Intelligent Mobile Cloud Computing Services

Jan 25, 2018
Amir Erfan Eshratifar, Mohammad Saeed Abrishami, Massoud Pedram

Deep neural networks are among the most influential architectures of deep learning algorithms, being deployed in many mobile intelligent applications. End-side services, such as intelligent personal assistants (IPAs), autonomous cars, and smart home services often employ either simple local models or complex remote models on the cloud. Mobile-only and cloud-only computations are currently the status quo approaches. In this paper, we propose an efficient, adaptive, and practical engine, JointDNN, for collaborative computation between a mobile device and cloud for DNNs in both inference and training phase. JointDNN not only provides an energy and performance efficient method of querying DNNs for the mobile side, but also benefits the cloud server by reducing the amount of its workload and communications compared to the cloud-only approach. Given the DNN architecture, we investigate the efficiency of processing some layers on the mobile device and some layers on the cloud server. We provide optimization formulations at layer granularity for forward and backward propagation in DNNs, which can adapt to mobile battery limitations and cloud server load constraints and quality of service. JointDNN achieves up to 18X and 32X reductions on the latency and mobile energy consumption of querying DNNs, respectively.

  

Deep Interference Mitigation and Denoising of Real-World FMCW Radar Signals

Dec 04, 2020
Johanna Rock, Mate Toth, Paul Meissner, Franz Pernkopf

Radar sensors are crucial for environment perception of driver assistance systems as well as autonomous cars. Key performance factors are a fine range resolution and the possibility to directly measure velocity. With a rising number of radar sensors and the so far unregulated automotive radar frequency band, mutual interference is inevitable and must be dealt with. Sensors must be capable of detecting, or even mitigating the harmful effects of interference, which include a decreased detection sensitivity. In this paper, we evaluate a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based approach for interference mitigation on real-world radar measurements. We combine real measurements with simulated interference in order to create input-output data suitable for training the model. We analyze the performance to model complexity relation on simulated and measurement data, based on an extensive parameter search. Further, a finite sample size performance comparison shows the effectiveness of the model trained on either simulated or real data as well as for transfer learning. A comparative performance analysis with the state of the art emphasizes the potential of CNN-based models for interference mitigation and denoising of real-world measurements, also considering resource constraints of the hardware.

* 2020 IEEE International Radar Conference (RADAR) 
  

Complex Signal Denoising and Interference Mitigation for Automotive Radar Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Jun 25, 2019
Johanna Rock, Mate Toth, Elmar Messner, Paul Meissner, Franz Pernkopf

Driver assistance systems as well as autonomous cars have to rely on sensors to perceive their environment. A heterogeneous set of sensors is used to perform this task robustly. Among them, radar sensors are indispensable because of their range resolution and the possibility to directly measure velocity. Since more and more radar sensors are deployed on the streets, mutual interference must be dealt with. In the so far unregulated automotive radar frequency band, a sensor must be capable of detecting, or even mitigating the harmful effects of interference, which include a decreased detection sensitivity. In this paper, we address this issue with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), which are state-of-the-art machine learning tools. We show that the ability of CNNs to find structured information in data while preserving local information enables superior denoising performance. To achieve this, CNN parameters are found using training with simulated data and integrated into the automotive radar signal processing chain. The presented method is compared with the state of the art, highlighting its promising performance. Hence, CNNs can be employed for interference mitigation as an alternative to conventional signal processing methods. Code and pre-trained models are available at https://github.com/johanna-rock/imRICnn.

* FUSION 2019; 8 pages 
  

KITTI-360: A Novel Dataset and Benchmarks for Urban Scene Understanding in 2D and 3D

Sep 28, 2021
Yiyi Liao, Jun Xie, Andreas Geiger

For the last few decades, several major subfields of artificial intelligence including computer vision, graphics, and robotics have progressed largely independently from each other. Recently, however, the community has realized that progress towards robust intelligent systems such as self-driving cars requires a concerted effort across the different fields. This motivated us to develop KITTI-360, successor of the popular KITTI dataset. KITTI-360 is a suburban driving dataset which comprises richer input modalities, comprehensive semantic instance annotations and accurate localization to facilitate research at the intersection of vision, graphics and robotics. For efficient annotation, we created a tool to label 3D scenes with bounding primitives and developed a model that transfers this information into the 2D image domain, resulting in over 150k semantic and instance annotated images and 1B annotated 3D points. Moreover, we established benchmarks and baselines for several tasks relevant to mobile perception, encompassing problems from computer vision, graphics, and robotics on the same dataset. KITTI-360 will enable progress at the intersection of these research areas and thus contributing towards solving one of our grand challenges: the development of fully autonomous self-driving systems.

* arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1511.03240 
  

Empirical Study on the Software Engineering Practices in Open Source ML Package Repositories

Dec 08, 2020
Minke Xiu, Ellis E. Eghan, Zhen Ming, Jiang, Bram Adams

Recent advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI), especially in Machine Learning (ML), have introduced various practical applications (e.g., virtual personal assistants and autonomous cars) that enhance the experience of everyday users. However, modern ML technologies like Deep Learning require considerable technical expertise and resources to develop, train and deploy such models, making effective reuse of the ML models a necessity. Such discovery and reuse by practitioners and researchers are being addressed by public ML package repositories, which bundle up pre-trained models into packages for publication. Since such repositories are a recent phenomenon, there is no empirical data on their current state and challenges. Hence, this paper conducts an exploratory study that analyzes the structure and contents of two popular ML package repositories, TFHub and PyTorch Hub, comparing their information elements (features and policies), package organization, package manager functionalities and usage contexts against popular software package repositories (npm, PyPI, and CRAN). Through these studies, we have identified unique SE practices and challenges for sharing ML packages. These findings and implications would be useful for data scientists, researchers and software developers who intend to use these shared ML packages.

  

DOPS: Learning to Detect 3D Objects and Predict their 3D Shapes

Apr 07, 2020
Mahyar Najibi, Guangda Lai, Abhijit Kundu, Zhichao Lu, Vivek Rathod, Thomas Funkhouser, Caroline Pantofaru, David Ross, Larry S. Davis, Alireza Fathi

We propose DOPS, a fast single-stage 3D object detection method for LIDAR data. Previous methods often make domain-specific design decisions, for example projecting points into a bird-eye view image in autonomous driving scenarios. In contrast, we propose a general-purpose method that works on both indoor and outdoor scenes. The core novelty of our method is a fast, single-pass architecture that both detects objects in 3D and estimates their shapes. 3D bounding box parameters are estimated in one pass for every point, aggregated through graph convolutions, and fed into a branch of the network that predicts latent codes representing the shape of each detected object. The latent shape space and shape decoder are learned on a synthetic dataset and then used as supervision for the end-to-end training of the 3D object detection pipeline. Thus our model is able to extract shapes without access to ground-truth shape information in the target dataset. During experiments, we find that our proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results by ~5% on object detection in ScanNet scenes, and it gets top results by 3.4% in the Waymo Open Dataset, while reproducing the shapes of detected cars.

* To appear in CVPR 2020 
  

Deep Learning in the Automotive Industry: Recent Advances and Application Examples

Jun 24, 2019
Kanwar Bharat Singh, Mustafa Ali Arat

One of the most exciting technology breakthroughs in the last few years has been the rise of deep learning. State-of-the-art deep learning models are being widely deployed in academia and industry, across a variety of areas, from image analysis to natural language processing. These models have grown from fledgling research subjects to mature techniques in real-world use. The increasing scale of data, computational power and the associated algorithmic innovations are the main drivers for the progress we see in this field. These developments also have a huge potential for the automotive industry and therefore the interest in deep learning-based technology is growing. A lot of the product innovations, such as self-driving cars, parking and lane-change assist or safety functions, such as autonomous emergency braking, are powered by deep learning algorithms. Deep learning is poised to offer gains in performance and functionality for most ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) solutions. Virtual sensing for vehicle dynamics application, vehicle inspection/heath monitoring, automated driving and data-driven product development are key areas that are expected to get the most attention. This article provides an overview of the recent advances and some associated challenges in deep learning techniques in the context of automotive applications.

  
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