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"autonomous cars": models, code, and papers

Trajectron++: Multi-Agent Generative Trajectory Forecasting With Heterogeneous Data for Control

Jan 09, 2020
Tim Salzmann, Boris Ivanovic, Punarjay Chakravarty, Marco Pavone

Reasoning about human motion through an environment is an important prerequisite to safe and socially-aware robotic navigation. As a result, multi-agent behavior prediction has become a core component of modern human-robot interactive systems, such as self-driving cars. While there exist a multitude of methods for trajectory forecasting, many of them have only been evaluated with one semantic class of agents and only use prior trajectory information, ignoring a plethora of information available online to autonomous systems from common sensors. Towards this end, we present Trajectron++, a modular, graph-structured recurrent model that forecasts the trajectories of a general number of agents with distinct semantic classes while incorporating heterogeneous data (e.g. semantic maps and camera images). Our model is designed to be tightly integrated with robotic planning and control frameworks; it is capable of producing predictions that are conditioned on ego-agent motion plans. We demonstrate the performance of our model on several challenging real-world trajectory forecasting datasets, outperforming a wide array of state-of-the-art deterministic and generative methods.

* 9 pages, 8 figures, 6 tables 
  

DeepBlindness: Fast Blindness Map Estimation and Blindness Type Classification for Outdoor Scene from Single Color Image

Nov 02, 2019
Jiaxiong Qiu, Xinyuan Yu, Guoqiang Yang, Shuaicheng Liu

Outdoor vision robotic systems and autonomous cars suffer from many image-quality issues, particularly haze, defocus blur, and motion blur, which we will define generically as "blindness issues". These blindness issues may seriously affect the performance of robotic systems and could lead to unsafe decisions being made. However, existing solutions either focus on one type of blindness only or lack the ability to estimate the degree of blindness accurately. Besides, heavy computation is needed so that these solutions cannot run in real-time on practical systems. In this paper, we provide a method which could simultaneously detect the type of blindness and provide a blindness map indicating to what degree the vision is limited on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Both the blindness type and the estimate of per-pixel blindness are essential for tasks like deblur, dehaze, or the fail-safe functioning of robotic systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on the KITTI and CUHK datasets where experiments show that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art approaches, achieving speeds of about 130 frames per second (fps).

  

Multi-Modal Temporal Convolutional Network for Anticipating Actions in Egocentric Videos

Jul 18, 2021
Olga Zatsarynna, Yazan Abu Farha, Juergen Gall

Anticipating human actions is an important task that needs to be addressed for the development of reliable intelligent agents, such as self-driving cars or robot assistants. While the ability to make future predictions with high accuracy is crucial for designing the anticipation approaches, the speed at which the inference is performed is not less important. Methods that are accurate but not sufficiently fast would introduce a high latency into the decision process. Thus, this will increase the reaction time of the underlying system. This poses a problem for domains such as autonomous driving, where the reaction time is crucial. In this work, we propose a simple and effective multi-modal architecture based on temporal convolutions. Our approach stacks a hierarchy of temporal convolutional layers and does not rely on recurrent layers to ensure a fast prediction. We further introduce a multi-modal fusion mechanism that captures the pairwise interactions between RGB, flow, and object modalities. Results on two large-scale datasets of egocentric videos, EPIC-Kitchens-55 and EPIC-Kitchens-100, show that our approach achieves comparable performance to the state-of-the-art approaches while being significantly faster.

* CVPR Precognition Workshop 
  

An Efficient Generation Method based on Dynamic Curvature of the Reference Curve for Robust Trajectory Planning

Dec 29, 2020
Yuchen Sun, Dongchun Ren, Shiqi Lian, Mingyu Fan, Xiangyi Teng

Trajectory planning is a fundamental task on various autonomous driving platforms, such as social robotics and self-driving cars. Many trajectory planning algorithms use a reference curve based Frenet frame with time to reduce the planning dimension. However, there is a common implicit assumption in classic trajectory planning approaches, which is that the generated trajectory should follow the reference curve continuously. This assumption is not always true in real applications and it might cause some undesired issues in planning. One issue is that the projection of the planned trajectory onto the reference curve maybe discontinuous. Then, some segments on the reference curve are not the image of any part of the planned path. Another issue is that the planned path might self-intersect when following a simple reference curve continuously. The generated trajectories are unnatural and suboptimal ones when these issues happen. In this paper, we firstly demonstrate these issues and then introduce an efficient trajectory generation method which uses a new transformation from the Cartesian frame to Frenet frames. Experimental results on a simulated street scenario demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

* no comments 
  

Visibility Guided NMS: Efficient Boosting of Amodal Object Detection in Crowded Traffic Scenes

Jun 15, 2020
Nils Gählert, Niklas Hanselmann, Uwe Franke, Joachim Denzler

Object detection is an important task in environment perception for autonomous driving. Modern 2D object detection frameworks such as Yolo, SSD or Faster R-CNN predict multiple bounding boxes per object that are refined using Non-Maximum-Suppression (NMS) to suppress all but one bounding box. While object detection itself is fully end-to-end learnable and does not require any manual parameter selection, standard NMS is parametrized by an overlap threshold that has to be chosen by hand. In practice, this often leads to an inability of standard NMS strategies to distinguish different objects in crowded scenes in the presence of high mutual occlusion, e.g. for parked cars or crowds of pedestrians. Our novel Visibility Guided NMS (vg-NMS) leverages both pixel-based as well as amodal object detection paradigms and improves the detection performance especially for highly occluded objects with little computational overhead. We evaluate vg-NMS using KITTI, VIPER as well as the Synscapes dataset and show that it outperforms current state-of-the-art NMS.

* Machine Learning for Autonomous Driving Workshop at the 33rd Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2019), Vancouver, Canada 
  

Exploring Robustness of Unsupervised Domain Adaptation in Semantic Segmentation

May 23, 2021
Jinyu Yang, Chunyuan Li, Weizhi An, Hehuan Ma, Yuzhi Guo, Yu Rong, Peilin Zhao, Junzhou Huang

Recent studies imply that deep neural networks are vulnerable to adversarial examples -- inputs with a slight but intentional perturbation are incorrectly classified by the network. Such vulnerability makes it risky for some security-related applications (e.g., semantic segmentation in autonomous cars) and triggers tremendous concerns on the model reliability. For the first time, we comprehensively evaluate the robustness of existing UDA methods and propose a robust UDA approach. It is rooted in two observations: (i) the robustness of UDA methods in semantic segmentation remains unexplored, which pose a security concern in this field; and (ii) although commonly used self-supervision (e.g., rotation and jigsaw) benefits image tasks such as classification and recognition, they fail to provide the critical supervision signals that could learn discriminative representation for segmentation tasks. These observations motivate us to propose adversarial self-supervision UDA (or ASSUDA) that maximizes the agreement between clean images and their adversarial examples by a contrastive loss in the output space. Extensive empirical studies on commonly used benchmarks demonstrate that ASSUDA is resistant to adversarial attacks.

* 10 pages, 4 figures 
  

Stochastic Dynamic Games in Belief Space

Sep 16, 2019
Wilko Schwarting, Alyssa Pierson, Sertac Karaman, Daniela Rus

Information gathering while interacting with other agents is critical in many emerging domains, such as self-driving cars, service robots, drone racing, and active surveillance. In these interactions, the interests of agents may be at odds with others, resulting in a non-cooperative dynamic game. Since unveiling one's own strategy to adversaries is undesirable, each agent must independently predict the other agents' future actions without communication. In the face of uncertainty from sensor and actuator noise, agents have to gain information over their own state, the states of others, and the environment. They must also consider how their own actions reveal information to others. We formulate this non-cooperative multi-agent planning problem as a stochastic dynamic game. Our solution uses local iterative dynamic programming in the belief space to find a Nash equilibrium of the game. We present three applications: active surveillance, guiding eyes for a blind agent, and autonomous racing. Agents with game-theoretic belief space planning win 44% more races compared to a baseline without game theory and 34% more than without belief space planning.

* 14 pages, 9 figures 
  

Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning for Long-Term Network Resource Allocation through Auction: a V2X Application

Jul 29, 2022
Jing Tan, Ramin Khalili, Holger Karl, Artur Hecker

We formulate offloading of computational tasks from a dynamic group of mobile agents (e.g., cars) as decentralized decision making among autonomous agents. We design an interaction mechanism that incentivizes such agents to align private and system goals by balancing between competition and cooperation. In the static case, the mechanism provably has Nash equilibria with optimal resource allocation. In a dynamic environment, this mechanism's requirement of complete information is impossible to achieve. For such environments, we propose a novel multi-agent online learning algorithm that learns with partial, delayed and noisy state information, thus greatly reducing information need. Our algorithm is also capable of learning from long-term and sparse reward signals with varying delay. Empirical results from the simulation of a V2X application confirm that through learning, agents with the learning algorithm significantly improve both system and individual performance, reducing up to 30% of offloading failure rate, communication overhead and load variation, increasing computation resource utilization and fairness. Results also confirm the algorithm's good convergence and generalization property in different environments.

* arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:2204.02267 
  

Privacy-Preserving Reinforcement Learning Beyond Expectation

Mar 18, 2022
Arezoo Rajabi, Bhaskar Ramasubramanian, Abdullah Al Maruf, Radha Poovendran

Cyber and cyber-physical systems equipped with machine learning algorithms such as autonomous cars share environments with humans. In such a setting, it is important to align system (or agent) behaviors with the preferences of one or more human users. We consider the case when an agent has to learn behaviors in an unknown environment. Our goal is to capture two defining characteristics of humans: i) a tendency to assess and quantify risk, and ii) a desire to keep decision making hidden from external parties. We incorporate cumulative prospect theory (CPT) into the objective of a reinforcement learning (RL) problem for the former. For the latter, we use differential privacy. We design an algorithm to enable an RL agent to learn policies to maximize a CPT-based objective in a privacy-preserving manner and establish guarantees on the privacy of value functions learned by the algorithm when rewards are sufficiently close. This is accomplished through adding a calibrated noise using a Gaussian process mechanism at each step. Through empirical evaluations, we highlight a privacy-utility tradeoff and demonstrate that the RL agent is able to learn behaviors that are aligned with that of a human user in the same environment in a privacy-preserving manner

* Submitted to conference. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2104.00540 
  

Multi-Beam Automotive SAR Imaging in Urban Scenarios

Oct 28, 2021
Marco Rizzi, Marco Manzoni, Stefano Tebaldini, Andrea Virgilio Monti-Guarnieri, Claudio Maria Prati, Dario Tagliaferri, Monica Nicoli, Ivan Russo, Christian Mazzucco, Simón Tejero Alfageme, Umberto Spagnolini

Automotive synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems are rapidly emerging as a candidate technological solution to enable a high-resolution environment mapping for autonomous driving. Compared to lidars and cameras, automotive-legacy radars can work in any weather condition and without an external source of illumination, but are limited in either range or angular resolution. SARs offer a relevant increase in angular resolution, provided that the ego-motion of the radar platform is known along the synthetic aperture. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental campaign aimed at assessing the potential of a multi-beam SAR imaging in an urban scenario, composed of various targets (buildings, cars, pedestrian, etc.), employing a 77 GHz multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar platform based on a mass-market available automotive-grade technology. The results highlight a centimeter-level accuracy of the SAR images in realistic driving conditions, showing the possibility to use a multi-angle focusing approach to detect and discriminate between different targets based on their angular scattering response.

* 6 pages 
  
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