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"autonomous cars": models, code, and papers

Deep Tracking on the Move: Learning to Track the World from a Moving Vehicle using Recurrent Neural Networks

Apr 19, 2017
Julie Dequaire, Dushyant Rao, Peter Ondruska, Dominic Wang, Ingmar Posner

This paper presents an end-to-end approach for tracking static and dynamic objects for an autonomous vehicle driving through crowded urban environments. Unlike traditional approaches to tracking, this method is learned end-to-end, and is able to directly predict a full unoccluded occupancy grid map from raw laser input data. Inspired by the recently presented DeepTracking approach [Ondruska, 2016], we employ a recurrent neural network (RNN) to capture the temporal evolution of the state of the environment, and propose to use Spatial Transformer modules to exploit estimates of the egomotion of the vehicle. Our results demonstrate the ability to track a range of objects, including cars, buses, pedestrians, and cyclists through occlusion, from both moving and stationary platforms, using a single learned model. Experimental results demonstrate that the model can also predict the future states of objects from current inputs, with greater accuracy than previous work.

  

Hindsight is 20/20: Leveraging Past Traversals to Aid 3D Perception

Mar 22, 2022
Yurong You, Katie Z Luo, Xiangyu Chen, Junan Chen, Wei-Lun Chao, Wen Sun, Bharath Hariharan, Mark Campbell, Kilian Q. Weinberger

Self-driving cars must detect vehicles, pedestrians, and other traffic participants accurately to operate safely. Small, far-away, or highly occluded objects are particularly challenging because there is limited information in the LiDAR point clouds for detecting them. To address this challenge, we leverage valuable information from the past: in particular, data collected in past traversals of the same scene. We posit that these past data, which are typically discarded, provide rich contextual information for disambiguating the above-mentioned challenging cases. To this end, we propose a novel, end-to-end trainable Hindsight framework to extract this contextual information from past traversals and store it in an easy-to-query data structure, which can then be leveraged to aid future 3D object detection of the same scene. We show that this framework is compatible with most modern 3D detection architectures and can substantially improve their average precision on multiple autonomous driving datasets, most notably by more than 300% on the challenging cases.

* Accepted by ICLR 2022. Code is available at https://github.com/YurongYou/Hindsight 
  

Stochastic Finite State Control of POMDPs with LTL Specifications

Jan 21, 2020
Mohamadreza Ahmadi, Rangoli Sharan, Joel W. Burdick

Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) provide a modeling framework for autonomous decision making under uncertainty and imperfect sensing, e.g. robot manipulation and self-driving cars. However, optimal control of POMDPs is notoriously intractable. This paper considers the quantitative problem of synthesizing sub-optimal stochastic finite state controllers (sFSCs) for POMDPs such that the probability of satisfying a set of high-level specifications in terms of linear temporal logic (LTL) formulae is maximized. We begin by casting the latter problem into an optimization and use relaxations based on the Poisson equation and McCormick envelopes. Then, we propose an stochastic bounded policy iteration algorithm, leading to a controlled growth in sFSC size and an any time algorithm, where the performance of the controller improves with successive iterations, but can be stopped by the user based on time or memory considerations. We illustrate the proposed method by a robot navigation case study.

  

A Nonlinear Constrained Optimization Framework for Comfortable and Customizable Motion Planning of Nonholonomic Mobile Robots - Part II

May 22, 2013
Shilpa Gulati, Chetan Jhurani, Benjamin Kuipers

In this series of papers, we present a motion planning framework for planning comfortable and customizable motion of nonholonomic mobile robots such as intelligent wheelchairs and autonomous cars. In Part I, we presented the mathematical foundation of our framework, where we model motion discomfort as a weighted cost functional and define comfortable motion planning as a nonlinear constrained optimization problem of computing trajectories that minimize this discomfort given the appropriate boundary conditions and constraints. In this paper, we discretize the infinite-dimensional optimization problem using conforming finite elements. We describe shape functions to handle different kinds of boundary conditions and the choice of unknowns to obtain a sparse Hessian matrix. We also describe in detail how any trajectory computation problem can have infinitely many locally optimal solutions and our method of handling them. Additionally, since we have a nonlinear and constrained problem, computation of high quality initial guesses is crucial for efficient solution. We show how to compute them.

  

Uncertainty Quantification of Surrogate Explanations: an Ordinal Consensus Approach

Nov 17, 2021
Jonas Schulz, Rafael Poyiadzi, Raul Santos-Rodriguez

Explainability of black-box machine learning models is crucial, in particular when deployed in critical applications such as medicine or autonomous cars. Existing approaches produce explanations for the predictions of models, however, how to assess the quality and reliability of such explanations remains an open question. In this paper we take a step further in order to provide the practitioner with tools to judge the trustworthiness of an explanation. To this end, we produce estimates of the uncertainty of a given explanation by measuring the ordinal consensus amongst a set of diverse bootstrapped surrogate explainers. While we encourage diversity by using ensemble techniques, we propose and analyse metrics to aggregate the information contained within the set of explainers through a rating scheme. We empirically illustrate the properties of this approach through experiments on state-of-the-art Convolutional Neural Network ensembles. Furthermore, through tailored visualisations, we show specific examples of situations where uncertainty estimates offer concrete actionable insights to the user beyond those arising from standard surrogate explainers.

  

One-Step Time-Dependent Future Video Frame Prediction with a Convolutional Encoder-Decoder Neural Network

Jul 24, 2017
Vedran Vukotić, Silvia-Laura Pintea, Christian Raymond, Guillaume Gravier, Jan Van Gemert

There is an inherent need for autonomous cars, drones, and other robots to have a notion of how their environment behaves and to anticipate changes in the near future. In this work, we focus on anticipating future appearance given the current frame of a video. Existing work focuses on either predicting the future appearance as the next frame of a video, or predicting future motion as optical flow or motion trajectories starting from a single video frame. This work stretches the ability of CNNs (Convolutional Neural Networks) to predict an anticipation of appearance at an arbitrarily given future time, not necessarily the next video frame. We condition our predicted future appearance on a continuous time variable that allows us to anticipate future frames at a given temporal distance, directly from the input video frame. We show that CNNs can learn an intrinsic representation of typical appearance changes over time and successfully generate realistic predictions at a deliberate time difference in the near future.

* 11 pages, 1 figures, published in the International Conference of Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP) 2017 and in the Netherlands Conference on Computer Vision (NCCV) 2016 
  

AA3DNet: Attention Augmented Real Time 3D Object Detection

Aug 11, 2021
Abhinav Sagar

In this work, we address the problem of 3D object detection from point cloud data in real time. For autonomous vehicles to work, it is very important for the perception component to detect the real world objects with both high accuracy and fast inference. We propose a novel neural network architecture along with the training and optimization details for detecting 3D objects using point cloud data. We present anchor design along with custom loss functions used in this work. A combination of spatial and channel wise attention module is used in this work. We use the Kitti 3D Birds Eye View dataset for benchmarking and validating our results. Our method surpasses previous state of the art in this domain both in terms of average precision and speed running at > 30 FPS. Finally, we present the ablation study to demonstrate that the performance of our network is generalizable. This makes it a feasible option to be deployed in real time applications like self driving cars.

* 12 pages, 8 tables, 6 figures, Submitted to 3DV 2021 
  

Predictive Probability Path Planning Model For Dynamic Environments

Jul 29, 2020
Sourav Dutta, Tuan Tran, Banafsheh Rekabdar, Chinwe Ekenna

Path planning in dynamic environments is essential to high-risk applications such as unmanned aerial vehicles, self-driving cars, and autonomous underwater vehicles. In this paper, we generate collision-free trajectories for a robot within any given environment with temporal and spatial uncertainties caused due to randomly moving obstacles. We use two Poisson distributions to model the movements of obstacles across the generated trajectory of a robot in both space and time to determine the probability of collision with an obstacle. Measures are taken to avoid an obstacle by intelligently manipulating the speed of the robot at space-time intervals where a larger number of obstacles intersect the trajectory of the robot. Our method potentially reduces the use of computationally expensive collision detection libraries. Based on our experiments, there has been a significant improvement over existing methods in terms of safety, accuracy, execution time and computational cost. Our results show a high level of accuracy between the predicted and actual number of collisions with moving obstacles.

  

Achieving Real-Time LiDAR 3D Object Detection on a Mobile Device

Dec 26, 2020
Pu Zhao, Wei Niu, Geng Yuan, Yuxuan Cai, Hsin-Hsuan Sung, Wujie Wen, Sijia Liu, Xipeng Shen, Bin Ren, Yanzhi Wang, Xue Lin

3D object detection is an important task, especially in the autonomous driving application domain. However, it is challenging to support the real-time performance with the limited computation and memory resources on edge-computing devices in self-driving cars. To achieve this, we propose a compiler-aware unified framework incorporating network enhancement and pruning search with the reinforcement learning techniques, to enable real-time inference of 3D object detection on the resource-limited edge-computing devices. Specifically, a generator Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is employed to provide the unified scheme for both network enhancement and pruning search automatically, without human expertise and assistance. And the evaluated performance of the unified schemes can be fed back to train the generator RNN. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed framework firstly achieves real-time 3D object detection on mobile devices (Samsung Galaxy S20 phone) with competitive detection performance.

  
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