In person re-identification (ReID), one of the main challenges is the distribution inconsistency among different datasets. Previous researchers have defined several seemingly individual topics, such as fully supervised learning, direct transfer, domain adaptation, and incremental learning, each with different settings of training and testing scenarios. These topics are designed in a dataset-wise manner, i.e., images from the same dataset, even from disjoint cameras, are presumed to follow the same distribution. However, such distribution is coarse and training-set-specific, and the ReID knowledge learned in such manner works well only on the corresponding scenarios. To address this issue, we propose a fine-grained distribution alignment formulation, which disassembles the dataset and aligns all training and testing cameras. It connects all topics above and guarantees that ReID knowledge is always learned, accumulated, and verified in the aligned distributions. In practice, we devise the Camera-based Batch Normalization, which is easy for integration and nearly cost-free for existing ReID methods. Extensive experiments on the above four ReID tasks demonstrate the superiority of our approach. The code will be publicly available.
Modern vehicles are equipped with increasingly complex sensors. These sensors generate large volumes of data that provide opportunities for modeling and analysis. Here, we are interested in exploiting this data to learn aspects of behaviors and the road network associated with individual drivers. Our dataset is collected on a standard vehicle used to commute to work and for personal trips. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) trained on the GPS position and orientation data is utilized to compress the large amount of position information into a small amount of road segment states. Each state has a set of observations, i.e. car signals, associated with it that are quantized and modeled as draws from a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process (HDP). The inference for the topic distributions is carried out using HDP split-merge sampling algorithm. The topic distributions over joint quantized car signals characterize the driving situation in the respective road state. In a novel manner, we demonstrate how the sparsity of the personal road network of a driver in conjunction with a hierarchical topic model allows data driven predictions about destinations as well as likely road conditions.
Network representation learning (NRL) methods aim to map each vertex into a low dimensional space by preserving the local and global structure of a given network, and in recent years they have received a significant attention thanks to their success in several challenging problems. Although various approaches have been proposed to compute node embeddings, many successful methods benefit from random walks in order to transform a given network into a collection of sequences of nodes and then they target to learn the representation of nodes by predicting the context of each vertex within the sequence. In this paper, we introduce a general framework to enhance the embeddings of nodes acquired by means of the random walk-based approaches. Similar to the notion of topical word embeddings in NLP, the proposed method assigns each vertex to a topic with the favor of various statistical models and community detection methods, and then generates the enhanced community representations. We evaluate our method on two downstream tasks: node classification and link prediction. The experimental results demonstrate that the incorporation of vertex and topic embeddings outperform widely-known baseline NRL methods.
Communication is now a standard tool in the central bank's monetary policy toolkit. Theoretically, communication provides the central bank an opportunity to guide public expectations, and it has been shown empirically that central bank communication can lead to financial market fluctuations. However, there has been little research into which dimensions or topics of information are most important in causing these fluctuations. We develop a semi-automatic methodology that summarizes the FOMC statements into its main themes, automatically selects the best model based on coherency, and assesses whether there is a significant impact of these themes on the shape of the U.S Treasury yield curve using topic modeling methods from the machine learning literature. Our findings suggest that the FOMC statements can be decomposed into three topics: (i) information related to the economic conditions and the mandates, (ii) information related to monetary policy tools and intermediate targets, and (iii) information related to financial markets and the financial crisis. We find that statements are most influential during the financial crisis and the effects are mostly present in the curvature of the yield curve through information related to the financial theme.
As an exquisite and concise literary form, poetry is a gem of human culture. Automatic poetry generation is an essential step towards computer creativity. In recent years, several neural models have been designed for this task. However, among lines of a whole poem, the coherence in meaning and topics still remains a big challenge. In this paper, inspired by the theoretical concept in cognitive psychology, we propose a novel Working Memory model for poetry generation. Different from previous methods, our model explicitly maintains topics and informative limited history in a neural memory. During the generation process, our model reads the most relevant parts from memory slots to generate the current line. After each line is generated, it writes the most salient parts of the previous line into memory slots. By dynamic manipulation of the memory, our model keeps a coherent information flow and learns to express each topic flexibly and naturally. We experiment on three different genres of Chinese poetry: quatrain, iambic and chinoiserie lyric. Both automatic and human evaluation results show that our model outperforms current state-of-the-art methods.
Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) is a topic model widely used in natural language processing and machine learning. Most approaches to training the model rely on iterative algorithms, which makes it difficult to run LDA on big corpora that are best analyzed in parallel and distributed computational environments. Indeed, current approaches to parallel inference either don't converge to the correct posterior or require storage of large dense matrices in memory. We present a novel sampler that overcomes both problems, and we show that this sampler is faster, both empirically and theoretically, than previous Gibbs samplers for LDA. We do so by employing a novel P\'olya-urn-based approximation in the sparse partially collapsed sampler for LDA. We prove that the approximation error vanishes with data size, making our algorithm asymptotically exact, a property of importance for large-scale topic models. In addition, we show, via an explicit example, that -- contrary to popular belief in the topic modeling literature -- partially collapsed samplers can be more efficient than fully collapsed samplers. We conclude by comparing the performance of our algorithm with that of other approaches on well-known corpora.
The field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is growing rapidly, with new research published daily along with an abundance of tutorials, codebases and other online resources. In order to learn this dynamic field or stay up-to-date on the latest research, students as well as educators and researchers must constantly sift through multiple sources to find valuable, relevant information. To address this situation, we introduce TutorialBank, a new, publicly available dataset which aims to facilitate NLP education and research. We have manually collected and categorized over 6,300 resources on NLP as well as the related fields of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML) and Information Retrieval (IR). Our dataset is notably the largest manually-picked corpus of resources intended for NLP education which does not include only academic papers. Additionally, we have created both a search engine and a command-line tool for the resources and have annotated the corpus to include lists of research topics, relevant resources for each topic, prerequisite relations among topics, relevant sub-parts of individual resources, among other annotations. We are releasing the dataset and present several avenues for further research.
When people converse about social or political topics, similar arguments are often paraphrased by different speakers, across many different conversations. Debate websites produce curated summaries of arguments on such topics; these summaries typically consist of lists of sentences that represent frequently paraphrased propositions, or labels capturing the essence of one particular aspect of an argument, e.g. Morality or Second Amendment. We call these frequently paraphrased propositions ARGUMENT FACETS. Like these curated sites, our goal is to induce and identify argument facets across multiple conversations, and produce summaries. However, we aim to do this automatically. We frame the problem as consisting of two steps: we first extract sentences that express an argument from raw social media dialogs, and then rank the extracted arguments in terms of their similarity to one another. Sets of similar arguments are used to represent argument facets. We show here that we can predict ARGUMENT FACET SIMILARITY with a correlation averaging 0.63 compared to a human topline averaging 0.68 over three debate topics, easily beating several reasonable baselines.
Forecasting AI progress is essential to reducing uncertainty in order to appropriately plan for research efforts on AI safety and AI governance. While this is generally considered to be an important topic, little work has been conducted on it and there is no published document that gives and objective overview of the field. Moreover, the field is very diverse and there is no published consensus regarding its direction. This paper describes the development of a research agenda for forecasting AI progress which utilized the Delphi technique to elicit and aggregate experts' opinions on what questions and methods to prioritize. The results of the Delphi are presented; the remainder of the paper follow the structure of these results, briefly reviewing relevant literature and suggesting future work for each topic. Experts indicated that a wide variety of methods should be considered for forecasting AI progress. Moreover, experts identified salient questions that were both general and completely unique to the problem of forecasting AI progress. Some of the highest priority topics include the validation of (partially unresolved) forecasts, how to make forecasting action-guiding and the quality of different performance metrics. While statistical methods seem more promising, there is also recognition that supplementing judgmental techniques can be quite beneficial.
We propose a new task in the area of computational creativity: acrostic poem generation in English. Acrostic poems are poems that contain a hidden message; typically, the first letter of each line spells out a word or short phrase. We define the task as a generation task with multiple constraints: given an input word, 1) the initial letters of each line should spell out the provided word, 2) the poem's semantics should also relate to it, and 3) the poem should conform to a rhyming scheme. We further provide a baseline model for the task, which consists of a conditional neural language model in combination with a neural rhyming model. Since no dedicated datasets for acrostic poem generation exist, we create training data for our task by first training a separate topic prediction model on a small set of topic-annotated poems and then predicting topics for additional poems. Our experiments show that the acrostic poems generated by our baseline are received well by humans and do not lose much quality due to the additional constraints. Last, we confirm that poems generated by our model are indeed closely related to the provided prompts, and that pretraining on Wikipedia can boost performance.