Keyphrase extraction from a given document is the task of automatically extracting salient phrases that best describe the document. This paper proposes a novel unsupervised graph-based ranking method to extract high-quality phrases from a given document. We obtain the contextualized embeddings from pre-trained language models enriched with topic vectors from Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to represent the candidate phrases and the document. We introduce a scoring mechanism for the phrases using the information obtained from contextualized embeddings and the topic vectors. The salient phrases are extracted using a ranking algorithm on an undirected graph constructed for the given document. In the undirected graph, the nodes represent the phrases, and the edges between the phrases represent the semantic relatedness between them, weighted by a score obtained from the scoring mechanism. To demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed method, we perform several experiments on open source datasets in the science domain and observe that our novel method outperforms existing unsupervised embedding based keyphrase extraction methods. For instance, on the SemEval2017 dataset, our method advances the F1 score from 0.2195 (EmbedRank) to 0.2819 at the top 10 extracted keyphrases. Several variants of the proposed algorithm are investigated to determine their effect on the quality of keyphrases. We further demonstrate the ability of our proposed method to collect additional high-quality keyphrases that are not present in the document from external knowledge bases like Wikipedia for enriching the document with newly discovered keyphrases. We evaluate this step on a collection of annotated documents. The F1-score at the top 10 expanded keyphrases is 0.60, indicating that our algorithm can also be used for 'concept' expansion using external knowledge.
One of the long-standing challenges in lexical semantics consists in learning representations of words which reflect their semantic properties. The remarkable success of word embeddings for this purpose suggests that high-quality representations can be obtained by summarizing the sentence contexts of word mentions. In this paper, we propose a method for learning word representations that follows this basic strategy, but differs from standard word embeddings in two important ways. First, we take advantage of contextualized language models (CLMs) rather than bags of word vectors to encode contexts. Second, rather than learning a word vector directly, we use a topic model to partition the contexts in which words appear, and then learn different topic-specific vectors for each word. Finally, we use a task-specific supervision signal to make a soft selection of the resulting vectors. We show that this simple strategy leads to high-quality word vectors, which are more predictive of semantic properties than word embeddings and existing CLM-based strategies.
Multimodal Entity Linking (MEL) which aims at linking mentions with multimodal contexts to the referent entities from a knowledge base (e.g., Wikipedia), is an essential task for many multimodal applications. Although much attention has been paid to MEL, the shortcomings of existing MEL datasets including limited contextual topics and entity types, simplified mention ambiguity, and restricted availability, have caused great obstacles to the research and application of MEL. In this paper, we present WikiDiverse, a high-quality human-annotated MEL dataset with diversified contextual topics and entity types from Wikinews, which uses Wikipedia as the corresponding knowledge base. A well-tailored annotation procedure is adopted to ensure the quality of the dataset. Based on WikiDiverse, a sequence of well-designed MEL models with intra-modality and inter-modality attentions are implemented, which utilize the visual information of images more adequately than existing MEL models do. Extensive experimental analyses are conducted to investigate the contributions of different modalities in terms of MEL, facilitating the future research on this task. The dataset and baseline models are available at https://github.com/wangxw5/wikiDiverse.
Recent advances in natural language processing have enabled automation of a wide range of tasks, including machine translation, named entity recognition, and sentiment analysis. Automated summarization of documents, or groups of documents, however, has remained elusive, with many efforts limited to extraction of keywords, key phrases, or key sentences. Accurate abstractive summarization has yet to be achieved due to the inherent difficulty of the problem, and limited availability of training data. In this paper, we propose a topic-centric unsupervised multi-document summarization framework to generate extractive and abstractive summaries for groups of scientific articles across 20 Fields of Study (FoS) in Microsoft Academic Graph (MAG) and news articles from DUC-2004 Task 2. The proposed algorithm generates an abstractive summary by developing salient language unit selection and text generation techniques. Our approach matches the state-of-the-art when evaluated on automated extractive evaluation metrics and performs better for abstractive summarization on five human evaluation metrics (entailment, coherence, conciseness, readability, and grammar). We achieve a kappa score of 0.68 between two co-author linguists who evaluated our results. We plan to publicly share MAG-20, a human-validated gold standard dataset of topic-clustered research articles and their summaries to promote research in abstractive summarization.
Production of news content is growing at an astonishing rate. To help manage and monitor the sheer amount of text, there is an increasing need to develop efficient methods that can provide insights into emerging content areas, and stratify unstructured corpora of text into `topics' that stem intrinsically from content similarity. Here we present an unsupervised framework that brings together powerful vector embeddings from natural language processing with tools from multiscale graph partitioning that can reveal natural partitions at different resolutions without making a priori assumptions about the number of clusters in the corpus. We show the advantages of graph-based clustering through end-to-end comparisons with other popular clustering and topic modelling methods, and also evaluate different text vector embeddings, from classic Bag-of-Words to Doc2Vec to the recent transformers based model Bert. This comparative work is showcased through an analysis of a corpus of US news coverage during the presidential election year of 2016.
Taxonomy is not only a fundamental form of knowledge representation, but also crucial to vast knowledge-rich applications, such as question answering and web search. Most existing taxonomy construction methods extract hypernym-hyponym entity pairs to organize a "universal" taxonomy. However, these generic taxonomies cannot satisfy user's specific interest in certain areas and relations. Moreover, the nature of instance taxonomy treats each node as a single word, which has low semantic coverage. In this paper, we propose a method for seed-guided topical taxonomy construction, which takes a corpus and a seed taxonomy described by concept names as input, and constructs a more complete taxonomy based on user's interest, wherein each node is represented by a cluster of coherent terms. Our framework, CoRel, has two modules to fulfill this goal. A relation transferring module learns and transfers the user's interested relation along multiple paths to expand the seed taxonomy structure in width and depth. A concept learning module enriches the semantics of each concept node by jointly embedding the taxonomy and text. Comprehensive experiments conducted on real-world datasets show that Corel generates high-quality topical taxonomies and outperforms all the baselines significantly.
Sentiment analysis is one of the fastest growing research areas in computer science, making it challenging to keep track of all the activities in the area. We present a computer-assisted literature review, where we utilize both text mining and qualitative coding, and analyze 6,996 papers from Scopus. We find that the roots of sentiment analysis are in the studies on public opinion analysis at the beginning of 20th century and in the text subjectivity analysis performed by the computational linguistics community in 1990's. However, the outbreak of computer-based sentiment analysis only occurred with the availability of subjective texts on the Web. Consequently, 99% of the papers have been published after 2004. Sentiment analysis papers are scattered to multiple publication venues, and the combined number of papers in the top-15 venues only represent ca. 30% of the papers in total. We present the top-20 cited papers from Google Scholar and Scopus and a taxonomy of research topics. In recent years, sentiment analysis has shifted from analyzing online product reviews to social media texts from Twitter and Facebook. Many topics beyond product reviews like stock markets, elections, disasters, medicine, software engineering and cyberbullying extend the utilization of sentiment analysis
This paper presents a non-trivial reconstruction of a previous joint topic-sentiment-preference review model TSPRA with stick-breaking representation under the framework of variational inference (VI) and stochastic variational inference (SVI). TSPRA is a Gibbs Sampling based model that solves topics, word sentiments and user preferences altogether and has been shown to achieve good performance, but for large data set it can only learn from a relatively small sample. We develop the variational models vTSPRA and svTSPRA to improve the time use, and our new approach is capable of processing millions of reviews. We rebuild the generative process, improve the rating regression, solve and present the coordinate-ascent updates of variational parameters, and show the time complexity of each iteration is theoretically linear to the corpus size, and the experiments on Amazon data sets show it converges faster than TSPRA and attains better results given the same amount of time. In addition, we tune svTSPRA into an online algorithm ovTSPRA that can monitor oscillations of sentiment and preference overtime. Some interesting fluctuations are captured and possible explanations are provided. The results give strong visual evidence that user preference is better treated as an independent factor from sentiment.
Recent progress in natural language processing has been impressive in many different areas with transformer-based approaches setting new benchmarks for a wide range of applications. This development has also lowered the barriers for people outside the NLP community to tap into the tools and resources applied to a variety of domain-specific applications. The bottleneck however still remains the lack of annotated gold-standard collections as soon as one's research or professional interest falls outside the scope of what is readily available. One such area is genocide-related research (also including the work of experts who have a professional interest in accessing, exploring and searching large-scale document collections on the topic, such as lawyers). We present GTC (Genocide Transcript Corpus), the first annotated corpus of genocide-related court transcripts which serves three purposes: (1) to provide a first reference corpus for the community, (2) to establish benchmark performances (using state-of-the-art transformer-based approaches) for the new classification task of paragraph identification of violence-related witness statements, (3) to explore first steps towards transfer learning within the domain. We consider our contribution to be addressing in particular this year's hot topic on Language Technology for All.
Unstructured Persona-oriented Dialogue Systems (UPDS) has been demonstrated effective in generating persona consistent responses by utilizing predefined natural language user persona descriptions (e.g., "I am a vegan"). However, the predefined user persona descriptions are usually short and limited to only a few descriptive words, which makes it hard to correlate them with the dialogues. As a result, existing methods either fail to use the persona description or use them improperly when generating persona consistent responses. To address this, we propose a neural topical expansion framework, namely Persona Exploration and Exploitation (PEE), which is able to extend the predefined user persona description with semantically correlated content before utilizing them to generate dialogue responses. PEE consists of two main modules: persona exploration and persona exploitation. The former learns to extend the predefined user persona description by mining and correlating with existing dialogue corpus using a variational auto-encoder (VAE) based topic model. The latter learns to generate persona consistent responses by utilizing the predefined and extended user persona description. In order to make persona exploitation learn to utilize user persona description more properly, we also introduce two persona-oriented loss functions: Persona-oriented Matching (P-Match) loss and Persona-oriented Bag-of-Words (P-BoWs) loss which respectively supervise persona selection in encoder and decoder. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art baselines, in terms of both automatic and human evaluations.