Cross-domain sentiment classification has been a hot spot these years, which aims to learn a reliable classifier using labeled data from the source domain and evaluate it on the target domain. In this vein, most approaches utilized domain adaptation that maps data from different domains into a common feature space. To further improve the model performance, several methods targeted to mine domain-specific information were proposed. However, most of them only utilized a limited part of domain-specific information. In this study, we first develop a method of extracting domain-specific words based on the topic information. Then, we propose a Topic Driven Adaptive Network (TDAN) for cross-domain sentiment classification. The network consists of two sub-networks: semantics attention network and domain-specific word attention network, the structures of which are based on transformers. These sub-networks take different forms of input and their outputs are fused as the feature vector. Experiments validate the effectiveness of our TDAN on sentiment classification across domains.
In this paper, we propose a deep learning approach to tackle the automatic summarization tasks by incorporating topic information into the convolutional sequence-to-sequence (ConvS2S) model and using self-critical sequence training (SCST) for optimization. Through jointly attending to topics and word-level alignment, our approach can improve coherence, diversity, and informativeness of generated summaries via a biased probability generation mechanism. On the other hand, reinforcement training, like SCST, directly optimizes the proposed model with respect to the non-differentiable metric ROUGE, which also avoids the exposure bias during inference. We carry out the experimental evaluation with state-of-the-art methods over the Gigaword, DUC-2004, and LCSTS datasets. The empirical results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed method in the abstractive summarization.
We present the nested Chinese restaurant process (nCRP), a stochastic process which assigns probability distributions to infinitely-deep, infinitely-branching trees. We show how this stochastic process can be used as a prior distribution in a Bayesian nonparametric model of document collections. Specifically, we present an application to information retrieval in which documents are modeled as paths down a random tree, and the preferential attachment dynamics of the nCRP leads to clustering of documents according to sharing of topics at multiple levels of abstraction. Given a corpus of documents, a posterior inference algorithm finds an approximation to a posterior distribution over trees, topics and allocations of words to levels of the tree. We demonstrate this algorithm on collections of scientific abstracts from several journals. This model exemplifies a recent trend in statistical machine learning--the use of Bayesian nonparametric methods to infer distributions on flexible data structures.
A text mining approach is proposed based on latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) to analyze the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) consumer complaints. The proposed approach aims to extract latent topics in the CFPB complaint narratives, and explores their associated trends over time. The time trends will then be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the CFPB regulations and expectations on financial institutions in creating a consumer oriented culture that treats consumers fairly and prioritizes consumer protection in their decision making processes. The proposed approach can be easily operationalized as a decision support system to automate detection of emerging topics in consumer complaints. Hence, the technology-human partnership between the proposed approach and the CFPB team could certainly improve consumer protections from unfair, deceptive or abusive practices in the financial markets by providing more efficient and effective investigations of consumer complaint narratives.
If an image tells a story, the image caption is the briefest narrator. Generally, a scene graph prefers to be an omniscient generalist, while the image caption is more willing to be a specialist, which outlines the gist. Lots of previous studies have found that a scene graph is not as practical as expected unless it can reduce the trivial contents and noises. In this respect, the image caption is a good tutor. To this end, we let the scene graph borrow the ability from the image caption so that it can be a specialist on the basis of remaining all-around, resulting in the so-called Topic Scene Graph. What an image caption pays attention to is distilled and passed to the scene graph for estimating the importance of partial objects, relationships, and events. Specifically, during the caption generation, the attention about individual objects in each time step is collected, pooled, and assembled to obtain the attention about relationships, which serves as weak supervision for regularizing the estimated importance scores of relationships. In addition, as this attention distillation process provides an opportunity for combining the generation of image caption and scene graph together, we further transform the scene graph into linguistic form with rich and free-form expressions by sharing a single generation model with image caption. Experiments show that attention distillation brings significant improvements in mining important relationships without strong supervision, and the topic scene graph shows great potential in subsequent applications.
Chronic pain is recognized as a major health problem, with impacts not only at the economic, but also at the social, and individual levels. Being a private and subjective experience, it is impossible to externally and impartially experience, describe, and interpret chronic pain as a purely noxious stimulus that would directly point to a causal agent and facilitate its mitigation, contrary to acute pain, the assessment of which is usually straightforward. Verbal communication is, thus, key to convey relevant information to health professionals that would otherwise not be accessible to external entities, namely, intrinsic qualities about the painful experience and the patient. We propose and discuss a topic modelling approach to recognize patterns in verbal descriptions of chronic pain, and use these patterns to quantify and qualify experiences of pain. Our approaches allow for the extraction of novel insights on chronic pain experiences from the obtained topic models and latent spaces. We argue that our results are clinically relevant for the assessment and management of chronic pain.
A crucial step in processing speech audio data for information extraction, topic detection, or browsing/playback is to segment the input into sentence and topic units. Speech segmentation is challenging, since the cues typically present for segmenting text (headers, paragraphs, punctuation) are absent in spoken language. We investigate the use of prosody (information gleaned from the timing and melody of speech) for these tasks. Using decision tree and hidden Markov modeling techniques, we combine prosodic cues with word-based approaches, and evaluate performance on two speech corpora, Broadcast News and Switchboard. Results show that the prosodic model alone performs on par with, or better than, word-based statistical language models -- for both true and automatically recognized words in news speech. The prosodic model achieves comparable performance with significantly less training data, and requires no hand-labeling of prosodic events. Across tasks and corpora, we obtain a significant improvement over word-only models using a probabilistic combination of prosodic and lexical information. Inspection reveals that the prosodic models capture language-independent boundary indicators described in the literature. Finally, cue usage is task and corpus dependent. For example, pause and pitch features are highly informative for segmenting news speech, whereas pause, duration and word-based cues dominate for natural conversation.
We propose a hierarchically structured reinforcement learning approach to address the challenges of planning for generating coherent multi-sentence stories for the visual storytelling task. Within our framework, the task of generating a story given a sequence of images is divided across a two-level hierarchical decoder. The high-level decoder constructs a plan by generating a semantic concept (i.e., topic) for each image in sequence. The low-level decoder generates a sentence for each image using a semantic compositional network, which effectively grounds the sentence generation conditioned on the topic. The two decoders are jointly trained end-to-end using reinforcement learning. We evaluate our model on the visual storytelling (VIST) dataset. Empirical results from both automatic and human evaluations demonstrate that the proposed hierarchically structured reinforced training achieves significantly better performance compared to a strong flat deep reinforcement learning baseline.
We develop necessary and sufficient conditions and a novel provably consistent and efficient algorithm for discovering topics (latent factors) from observations (documents) that are realized from a probabilistic mixture of shared latent factors that have certain properties. Our focus is on the class of topic models in which each shared latent factor contains a novel word that is unique to that factor, a property that has come to be known as separability. Our algorithm is based on the key insight that the novel words correspond to the extreme points of the convex hull formed by the row-vectors of a suitably normalized word co-occurrence matrix. We leverage this geometric insight to establish polynomial computation and sample complexity bounds based on a few isotropic random projections of the rows of the normalized word co-occurrence matrix. Our proposed random-projections-based algorithm is naturally amenable to an efficient distributed implementation and is attractive for modern web-scale distributed data mining applications.
Determining semantic similarity between academic documents is crucial to many tasks such as plagiarism detection, automatic technical survey and semantic search. Current studies mostly focus on semantic similarity between concepts, sentences and short text fragments. However, document-level semantic matching is still based on statistical information in surface level, neglecting article structures and global semantic meanings, which may cause the deviation in document understanding. In this paper, we focus on the document-level semantic similarity issue for academic literatures with a novel method. We represent academic articles with topic events that utilize multiple information profiles, such as research purposes, methodologies and domains to integrally describe the research work, and calculate the similarity between topic events based on the domain ontology to acquire the semantic similarity between articles. Experiments show that our approach achieves significant performance compared to state-of-the-art methods.