Social media serves as a unified platform for users to express their thoughts on subjects ranging from their daily lives to their opinion on consumer brands and products. These users wield an enormous influence in shaping the opinions of other consumers and influence brand perception, brand loyalty and brand advocacy. In this paper, we analyze the opinion of 19M Twitter users towards 62 popular industries, encompassing 12,898 enterprise and consumer brands, as well as associated subject matter topics, via sentiment analysis of 330M tweets over a period spanning a month. We find that users tend to be most positive towards manufacturing and most negative towards service industries. In addition, they tend to be more positive or negative when interacting with brands than generally on Twitter. We also find that sentiment towards brands within an industry varies greatly and we demonstrate this using two industries as use cases. In addition, we discover that there is no strong correlation between topic sentiments of different industries, demonstrating that topic sentiments are highly dependent on the context of the industry that they are mentioned in. We demonstrate the value of such an analysis in order to assess the impact of brands on social media. We hope that this initial study will prove valuable for both researchers and companies in understanding users' perception of industries, brands and associated topics and encourage more research in this field.
Contrastive learning is an approach to representation learning that utilizes naturally occurring similar and dissimilar pairs of data points to find useful embeddings of data. In the context of document classification under topic modeling assumptions, we prove that contrastive learning is capable of recovering a representation of documents that reveals their underlying topic posterior information to linear models. We apply this procedure in a semi-supervised setup and demonstrate empirically that linear classifiers with these representations perform well in document classification tasks with very few training examples.
Topic models are popular for modeling discrete data (e.g., texts, images, videos, links), and provide an efficient way to discover hidden structures/semantics in massive data. One of the core problems in this field is the posterior inference for individual data instances. This problem is particularly important in streaming environments, but is often intractable. In this paper, we investigate the use of the Frank-Wolfe algorithm (FW) for recovering sparse solutions to posterior inference. From detailed elucidation of both theoretical and practical aspects, FW exhibits many interesting properties which are beneficial to topic modeling. We then employ FW to design fast methods, including ML-FW, for learning latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) at large scales. Extensive experiments show that to reach the same predictiveness level, ML-FW can perform tens to thousand times faster than existing state-of-the-art methods for learning LDA from massive/streaming data.
We present, visualize and analyse the similarities and differences between the controversial topics related to "edit wars" identified in 10 different language versions of Wikipedia. After a brief review of the related work we describe the methods developed to locate, measure, and categorize the controversial topics in the different languages. Visualizations of the degree of overlap between the top 100 lists of most controversial articles in different languages and the content related to geographical locations will be presented. We discuss what the presented analysis and visualizations can tell us about the multicultural aspects of Wikipedia and practices of peer-production. Our results indicate that Wikipedia is more than just an encyclopaedia; it is also a window into convergent and divergent social-spatial priorities, interests and preferences.
Cultural products are a source to acquire individual values and behaviours. Therefore, the differences in the content of the magazines aimed specifically at women or men are a means to create and reproduce gender stereotypes. In this study, we compare the content of a women-oriented magazine with that of a men-oriented one, both produced by the same editorial group, over a decade (2008-2018). With Topic Modelling techniques we identify the main themes discussed in the magazines and quantify how much the presence of these topics differs between magazines over time. Then, we performed a word-frequency analysis to validate this methodology and extend the analysis to other subjects that did not emerge automatically. Our results show that the frequency of appearance of the topics Family, Business and Women as sex objects, present an initial bias that tends to disappear over time. Conversely, in Fashion and Science topics, the initial differences between both magazines are maintained. Besides, we show that in 2012, the content associated with horoscope increased in the women-oriented magazine, generating a new gap that remained open over time. Also, we show a strong increase in the use of words associated with feminism since 2015 and specifically the word abortion in 2018. Overall, these computational tools allowed us to analyse more than 24,000 articles. Up to our knowledge, this is the first study to compare magazines in such a large dataset, a task that would have been prohibitive using manual content analysis methodologies.
Ranking models have achieved promising results, but it remains challenging to design personalized ranking systems to leverage user profiles and semantic representations between queries and documents. In this paper, we propose a topic-based personalized ranking model (TPRM) that integrates user topical profile with pretrained contextualized term representations to tailor the general document ranking list. Experiments on the real-world dataset demonstrate that TPRM outperforms state-of-the-art ad-hoc ranking models and personalized ranking models significantly.
To address the lack of comparative evaluation of Human-in-the-Loop Topic Modeling (HLTM) systems, we implement and evaluate three contrasting HLTM approaches using simulation experiments. These approaches are based on previously proposed frameworks, including constraints and informed prior-based methods. User control is desired, so we propose a control metric to measure whether refinement operations are applied as users expect. Informed prior-based methods provide better control than constraints, but constraints yield higher quality topics.
Cyberbullying, identified as intended and repeated online bullying behavior, has become increasingly prevalent in the past few decades. Despite the significant progress made thus far, the focus of most existing work on cyberbullying detection lies in the independent content analysis of different comments within a social media session. We argue that such leading notions of analysis suffer from three key limitations: they overlook the temporal correlations among different comments; they only consider the content within a single comment rather than the topic coherence across comments; they remain generic and exploit limited interactions between social media users. In this work, we observe that user comments in the same session may be inherently related, e.g., discussing similar topics, and their interaction may evolve over time. We also show that modeling such topic coherence and temporal interaction are critical to capture the repetitive characteristics of bullying behavior, thus leading to better predicting performance. To achieve the goal, we first construct a unified temporal graph for each social media session. Drawing on recent advances in graph neural network, we then propose a principled approach for modeling the temporal dynamics and topic coherence throughout user interactions. We empirically evaluate the effectiveness of our approach with the tasks of session-level bullying detection and comment-level case study.
Argument search aims at identifying arguments in natural language texts. In the past, this task has been addressed by a combination of keyword search and argument identification on the sentence- or document-level. However, existing frameworks often address only specific components of argument search and do not address the following aspects: (1) argument-query matching: identifying arguments that frame the topic slightly differently than the actual search query; (2) argument identification: identifying arguments that consist of multiple sentences; (3) argument clustering: selecting retrieved arguments by topical aspects. In this paper, we propose a framework for addressing these shortcomings. We suggest (1) to combine the keyword search with precomputed topic clusters for argument-query matching, (2) to apply a novel approach based on sentence-level sequence-labeling for argument identification, and (3) to present aggregated arguments to users based on topic-aware argument clustering. Our experiments on several real-world debate data sets demonstrate that density-based clustering algorithms, such as HDBSCAN, are particularly suitable for argument-query matching. With our sentence-level, BiLSTM-based sequence-labeling approach we achieve a macro F1 score of 0.71. Finally, evaluating our argument clustering method indicates that a fine-grained clustering of arguments by subtopics remains challenging but is worthwhile to be explored.
Multimodal Sentiment Analysis in Real-life Media (MuSe) 2020 is a Challenge-based Workshop focusing on the tasks of sentiment recognition, as well as emotion-target engagement and trustworthiness detection by means of more comprehensively integrating the audio-visual and language modalities. The purpose of MuSe 2020 is to bring together communities from different disciplines; mainly, the audio-visual emotion recognition community (signal-based), and the sentiment analysis community (symbol-based). We present three distinct sub-challenges: MuSe-Wild, which focuses on continuous emotion (arousal and valence) prediction; MuSe-Topic, in which participants recognise domain-specific topics as the target of 3-class (low, medium, high) emotions; and MuSe-Trust, in which the novel aspect of trustworthiness is to be predicted. In this paper, we provide detailed information on MuSe-CaR, the first of its kind in-the-wild database, which is utilised for the challenge, as well as the state-of-the-art features and modelling approaches applied. For each sub-challenge, a competitive baseline for participants is set; namely, on test we report for MuSe-Wild a combined (valence and arousal) CCC of .2568, for MuSe-Topic a score (computed as 0.34$\cdot$ UAR + 0.66$\cdot$F1) of 76.78 % on the 10-class topic and 40.64 % on the 3-class emotion prediction, and for MuSe-Trust a CCC of .4359.